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Table 1 Description of variables in 2011, 2013 and 2015 a

From: Medical insurance and healthcare utilization among the middle-aged and elderly in China: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study 2011, 2013 and 2015

Variables 2011
N = 17,250
2013
N = 18,195
2015
N = 19,842
n (%) b n (%) n (%)
Medical Insurance Schemes
 NRCMS 12,285 (72.2) 12,879 (72.1) 13,208 (68.8)
 UEBMI 2101 (12.4) 2420 (13.6) 2810 (14.6)
 URBMI 948 (5.6) 1284 (7.2) 1361 (7.1)
 PMI 540 (3.2) 555 (3.1) 185 (1.0)
 NONE 1137 (6.7) 726 (4.1) 1634 (8.5)
Economic Status (Average Total Household Annual Expenditure Per Capita in 2011, 2013 and 2015/US Dollars)c
 Quintile 1 (255.1, 371.0, 409.7) 2891 (20.1) 2400 (20.2) 2747 (20.6)
 Quintile 2 (520.3, 749.7, 869.5) 2888 (20.1) 2385 (20.1) 2701 (20.3)
 Quintile 3 (803.1, 1129.3, 1368.8) 2882 (20.1) 2377 (20.0) 2644 (19.9)
 Quintile 4 (1260.0, 1740.9, 2145.3) 2847 (19.8) 2366 (20.0) 2620 (19.7)
 Quintile 5 (3318.9, 4396.0, 6052.2) 2866 (19.9) 2360 (19.9) 2606 (19.6)
Gender
 Female 8407 (48.7) 8816 (48.5) 9653 (48.7)
 Male 8841 (51.3) 9378 (51.5) 10,181 (51.3)
Age
  [45,55] 6895 (40.0) 6705 (36.9) 7410 (37.4)
  (55,65] 6117 (35.5) 6553 (36.0) 6742 (34.0)
  (65, +∞) 4238 (24.6) 4937 (27.1) 5690 (28.7)
Marital Status
 Married or Cohabitated 14,990 (87.0) 15,792 (86.8) 17,140 (86.4)
 Divorced, Widowed, Never Married, Separated 2248 (13.0) 2396 (13.2) 2696 (13.6)
Education Status
 Below Primary School 4765 (27.7) 4825 (26.5) 5021 (25.4)
 Primary School 6715 (39.0) 7161 39.4) 8673 (43.8)
 Secondary School 3555 (20.6) 3822 (21.0) 3835 (19.4)
 High School and Above 2198 (12.8) 2375 (13.1) 2274 (11.5)
Registration Place
 Non-rural areas 6985 (40.5) 7348 (40.4) 8032 (40.5)
 Rural Areas 10,265 (59.5) 10,843 (59.6) 11,807 (59.5)
Region
 Eastern 5990 (34.7) 6290 (34.6) 6957 (35.1)
 Central 5654 (32.8) 5954 (32.7) 6438 (32.5)
 Western 5603 (32.5) 5940 (32.7) 6442 (32.5)
Chronic Diseasesd
 No 5566 (32.5) 6384 (35.4) 7523 (38.2)
 Yes 11,573 (67.5) 11,657 (64.6) 12,196 (61.9)
Self-reported Health
 Good 3409 (27.7) 4407 (25.6) 4705 (25.4)
 Fair 5790 (47.0) 9032 (52.5) 9918 (53. 6)
 Poor 3119 (25.3) 3765 (21.9) 3894 (21.0)
Depression
 Mild 12,062 (70.4) 13,661 (75.7) 14,467 (73.4)
 Moderate 4209 (24.6) 3761 (20.9) 4267 (21.6)
 Severe 868 (5.1) 619 (3.4) 985 (5.0)
Household Size
 1–2 6274 (36.4) 6424 (35.3) 7972 (40.2)
 3–4 5874 (34.1) 6349 (34.9) 9378 (47.3)
  ≥ 5 5102 (29.6) 5418 (29.8) 2489 (12.6)
Outpatient Service Utilization 3117 (18.6) 3653 (20.7) 3615 (18.7)
Inpatient Service Utilization 1631 (9.6) 2486 (13.8) 2813 (14.3)
  1. NRCMS New Rural Cooperative Medical Insurance Scheme, UEBMI Urban Employees Basic Medical Insurance, URBMI Urban Residents’ Basic Medical Insurance, PMI Private Medical Insurance
  2. a Numbers across the subgroups of some certain characteristics did not add up to the total because of some missing values
  3. b “n” means the number of individuals in each group and “%” means the proportion of individuals in each group
  4. c Average total household annual expenditure per capita in 2011, 2013 and 2015 was 1228.2 US dollars, 1670.3 US dollars and 2138.9 US dollars, respectively
  5. d Chronic diseases included hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes or high blood sugar, cancer or malignant tumor (excluding minor skin cancers), chronic lung diseases, such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema (excluding tumors, or cancer), liver disease (except fatty liver, tumors, and cancer), heart attack, stroke, kidney disease (except for tumor or cancer), stomach or other digestive disease (except for tumor or cancer), emotional, nervous, or psychiatric problems, memory-related disease, arthritis or rheumatism and asthma. In the surveys, people were asked whether they had ever been diagnosed with one of the listed chronic diseases and their responses were recorded