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Table 3 Univariate analysis of factors associated with WTP and WTA

From: Willingness-to-pay and willingness-to-accept of informal caregivers of dependent elderly people in Shanghai, China

  Mean WTP (SD) p WTA (SD) p
Characteristics of caregivers
Gender
 Male 26.17 (19.14) 0.482 39.98 (26.23) 0.408
 Female 24.62 (17.27)   37.55 (19.83)  
 Agea −0.134 0.032 −.036 0.587
Marital status
 Married 25.61 (18.44) 0.741 38.77 (23.05) 0.700
 Widowed 24.06 (14.93)   53.33 (26.58)  
 All others 21.45 (18.13)   38.75 (22.99)  
Education
 0–6 years 22.63 (18.52) 0.036 41.86 (24.51) 0.223
 7–15 years 23.46 (15.27)   36.72 (21.35)  
 Above 15 years 29.53 (21.32)   42.55 (29.09)  
Employment
 Employed 26.50 (19.41) 0.038 40.03 (25.37) 0.581
 Retired 20.71 (14.74)   37.41 (24.06)  
 Unemployed 25.31 (17.39)   36.21 (20.30)  
Income (CNY)
 Below 4000 21.21 (17.92) 0.004 37.29 (22,17) 0.249
 4000–6000 27.10 (16.54)   40.34 (24.63)  
 Above 6000 31.59 (22.48)   44.83 (27.19)  
Relationship to the recipient
 Spouse 21.49 (15.50) 0.002 43.17 (27.34) 0.168
 Child 25.72 (18.13)   37.92 (23.17)  
 All others 39.87 (23.33)   30.00 (16.83)  
Co-residence
 Yes 22.69 (15.11) 0.022 40.71 (25.66) 0.443
 No 27.73 (19.76)   38.26 (22.91)  
Characteristics of care recipients
Gender
 Male 23.49 (19.37) 0.242 39.24 (28.27) 0.733
 Female 26.22 (17.47)   38.13 (21.85)  
 Agea −0.082 0.200 −0.178 0.007
Education
 0–6 years 24.03 (16.31) 0.416 34.84 (22.50) 0.387
 7–15 years 25.22 (19.26)   39.60 (26.20)  
 15 years and above 28.62 (18.58)   42.35 (19.82)  
Income (CNY)
 Below 4000 22.80 (15.81) 0.063 34.22 (21.67) 0.014
 4000–6000 28.12 (20.86)   43.01 (26.10)  
 Above 6000 26.70 (15.11)   43.27 (20.27)  
CCI
 CCI = 0 27.06 (14.38) 0.198 35.94 (18.05) 0.134
 0 < CCI < =2 25.84 (20.38)   40.84 (27.67)  
 CCI > =3 20.91 (12.40)   33.27 (15.95)  
Caregiving-related measures
 Care duration (years)a 0.052 0.399 −0.006 0.929
Care time (hours/week)
 HDL tasks − 0.073 0.235 0.113 0.082
 ADL tasks 0.033 0.586 −0.039 0.549
 IADL tasks 0.063 0.306 −0.042 0.512
 Supervision and companionship −0.019 0.758 −0.063 0.322
Least-preferred care task
 HDL 27.59 (19.77) 0.222 46.34 (24.55) 0.001
 ADL 26.11 (19.33)   36.58 (23.19)  
 IADL 22.28 (14.32)   32.07 (15.36)  
 Supervision and companionship 31.25 (18.27)   50.00 (36.33)  
CRA
 CRA – Disrupted schedule −0.034 0.588 0.105 0.106
 CRA – Self-esteem −0.001 0.985 0.022 0.728
 CRA – Lack of family support −0.002 0.968 −0.127 0.046
 CRA – Loss of physical strength 0.034 0.572 0.133 0.036
 CRA – Financial problem −0.049 0.421 −0.033 0.604
Formal care
 Yes 26.13 (19.24) 0.339 39.09 (23.18) 0.716
 No 23.97 (16.06)   37.93 (25.80)  
Other informal care
 Yes 25.58 (20.18) 0.830 40.57 (28.56) 0.262
 No 25.11 (16.50)   37.11 (19.82)  
  1. aSpearman correlation