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Table 4 Perception of pharmacists regarding their involvement in medicines management (N = 396)

From: Pharmacists' viewpoint towards their professional role in healthcare system: a survey of hospital settings of Pakistan

Perceptions Education Agree Disagree P-Value Type Agree Disagree P-Value Experience Agree Disagree P-Value
Pharmacists should increase their involvement in medicines management B/M Pharm 45 (11.4%) 42 (10.6%) 0.000* State funded 135 (34.1%) 64 (16.2%) 0.028 < 5 years 54 (13.6%) 14 (3.5%) 0.000*
Pharm.D 229 (57.8%) 66 (16.7%) Private 153 (38.6%) 44 (11.1%) 5–10 years 182 (46.0%) 54 (13.6%)
Overseas 14 (3.5%) 0 (0%) > 10 years 52 (13.1%) 40 (10.1%)
Current state or private funding does not support collaborative work between pharmacists and clinicians in medicines management B/M Pharm 75 (18.9%) 12 (3.0%) 0.004 State funded 181 (45.7%) 18 (4.5%) 0.025 < 5 years 60 (15.2%) 8 (2.0%) 0.004
Pharm.D 282 (71.2%) 13 (3.3%) Private 190 (48%) 7 (1.8%) 5–10 years 229 (57.8%) 7 (1.8%)
Overseas 14 (3.5%) 0 (0%) > 10 years 82 (20.7%) 10 (2.5%)
Other than dispensing prescriptions, pharmacists are on the periphery of the core healthcare team B/M Pharm 69 (17.4%) 18 (4.5%) 0.000* State funded 189 (47.7%) 10 (2.5%) 0.804 < 5 years 67 (16.9%) 1 (0.3%) 0.000*
Pharm.D 292 (73.7%) 3 (0.8%) Private 186 (47%) 11 (2.8%) 5–10 years 230 (58.1%) 6 (1.5%)
Overseas 14 (3.5%) 0 (0%) > 10 years 78 (19.7%) 14 (3.5%)
Clinicians do not want pharmacists to provide medicines management services B/M Pharm 63 (15.9%) 24 (6.1%) 0.000* State funded 163 (41.2%) 36 (9.1%) 0.006 < 5 years 58 (14.6%) 10 (2.5%) 0.000*
Pharm.D 273 (68.9%) 22 (5.6%) Private 180 (45.5%) 17 (4.3%) 5–10 years 217 (54.8%) 19 (4.8%)
Overseas 7 (1.8%) 7 (1.8%) > 10 years 68 (17.2%) 24 (6.1%)
Patients would not subscribe to enhanced pharmacy practice services B/M Pharm 38 (9.6%) 49 (12.4%) 0.000* State funded 156 (39.4%) 43 (10.9%) 0.002 < 5 years 66 (16.7%) 2 (0.5%) 0.000*
Pharm.D 281 (71.0%) 14 (3.5%) Private 177 (44.7%) 20 (5.1%) 5–10 years 219 (55.3%) 17 (4.3%)
Overseas 14 (3.5%) 0 (0%) > 10 years 48 (12.1%) 44 (11.1%)
Medicines management by implication calls the clinician’s judgment into question B/M Pharm 87 (22%) 0 (0%) 0.000* State funded 181 (45.7%) 18 (4.5%) 0.031 < 5 years 59 (14.9%) 9 (2.3%) 0.021
Pharm.D 250 (63.1%) 45 (11.4%) Private 165 (41.7%) 32 (8.1%) 5–10 years 199 (50.2%) 37 (9.3%)
Overseas 9 (2.3%) 5 (1.3%) > 10 years 88 (22.2%) 4 (1.0%)
Medicines management challenges the clinician’s authority B/M Pharm 60 (15.2%) 27 (6.8%) 0.051 State funded 152 (38.4%) 47 (11.9%) 0.189 < 5 years 46 (11.6%) 22 (5.6%) 0.478
Pharm.D 217 (54.8%) 78 (19.7%) Private 139 (35.1%) 58 (14.6%) 5–10 years 177 (44.7%) 59 (14.9%)
Overseas 14 (3.5%) 0 (0%) > 10 years 68 (17.2%) 24 (6.1%)
This enhanced clinical practice de-skills the clinicians/ practitioners B/M Pharm 48 (12.1%) 39 (9.8%) 0.000* State funded 154 (38.9%) 45 (11.4%) 0.000 < 5 years 62 (15.7%) 6 (1.5%) 0.000*
Pharm.D 272 (68.7%) 23 (5.8%) Private 180 (45.5%) 17 (4.3%) 5–10 years 215 (54.3%) 21 (5.3%)
Overseas 14 (3.5%) 0 (0%) > 10 years 57 (14.4%) 35 (8.8%)
I do not have time to discuss patient-related medicine issues with clinicians B/M Pharm 87 (22%) 0 (0%) 0.000* State funded 157 (39.6%) 42 (10.6%) 0.004 < 5 years 55 (13.9%) 13 (3.3%) 0.000*
Pharm.D 232 (58.6%) 63 (15.9%) Private 176 (44.4%) 21 (5.3%) 5–10 years 187 (47.2%) 49 (12.4%)
Overseas 14 (3.5%) 0 (0%) > 10 years 91 (23.0%) 1 (0.3%)
I feel inadequately trained to deal with clinicians on clinical medicine-related issues on behalf of patients B/M Pharm 87 (22%) 0 (0%) 0.000* State funded 193 (48.7%) 6 (1.5%) 0.000* < 5 years 59 (14.9%) 9 (2.3%) 0.055
Pharm.D 245 (61.9%) 50 (12.6%) Private 153 (38.6%) 44 (11.1%) 5–10 years 200 (50.5%) 36 (9.1%)
Overseas 14 (3.5%) 0 (0%) > 10 years 87 (22.0%) 5 (1.3%)
I have sufficient confidence in my clinical knowledge to provide this service B/M Pharm 87 (22.0%) 0 (0%) 0.000* State funded 191 (48.2%) 8 (2.0%) 0.000* < 5 years 50 (12.6%) 18 (4.5%) 0.000*
Pharm.D 208 (52.5) 87 (22%) Private 118 (29.8%) 79 (19.9%) 5–10 years 170 (42.9%) 66 (16.7%)
Overseas 14 (3.5%) 0 (0%) > 10 years 89 (22.5%) 3 (0.8%)
Patients will get conflicting information regarding medicines use if pharmacists develop their medicines management services B/M Pharm 39 (9.8%) 48 (12.1%) 0.000* State funded 77 (19.4%) 122 (30.8%) 0.585 < 5 years 19 (4.8%) 49 (12.4%) 0.009
Pharm.D 95 (24%) 200 (50.5%) Private 71 (17.9%) 126 (31.8%) 5–10 years 83 (21.0%) 153 (38.6%)
Overseas 14 (3.5%) 0 (0%) > 10 years 46 (11.6%) 46 (11.6%)
Enhanced clinical input will further develop my current relationship with clinicians B/M Pharm 51 (12.9%) 36 (9.1%) 0.000* State funded 162 (40.9%) 37 (9.3%) 0.001 < 5 years 66 (16.7%) 2 (0.5%) 0.000*
Pharm.D 280 (70.7%) 15 (3.8%) Private 183 (46.2%) 14 (3.5%) 5–10 years 219 (55.3%) 17 (4.3%)
Overseas 14 (3.5%) 0 (0%) > 10 years 60 (15.2%) 32 (8.1%)
  1. * = significant p-value with Cramer V