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Table 2 Attitude of pharmacist regarding their role in the healthcare system (N = 396)

From: Pharmacists' viewpoint towards their professional role in healthcare system: a survey of hospital settings of Pakistan

Roles Education Agree Disagree P-Value Type Agree Disagree P-Value Experience Agree Disagree P-Value
To educate patients and carers about the safe and appropriate use of medicines B/M Pharm 71 (17.9%) 16 (4%) 0.000* State funded 172 (43.4%) 27 (6.8%) 0.035 < 5 years 65 (16.4%) 3 (0.8%) 0.001
Pharm.D 275 (69.4%) 20 (5.1%) Private 183 (46.2%) 14 (3.5%) 5–10 years 217 (54.8%) 19 (4.8%)
Overseas 9 (2.3%) 5 (1.3%) > 10 years 73 (18.4%) 19 (4.8%)
To monitor and report patients’ response to drug therapy B/M Pharm 74 (18.7%) 13 (3.3%) 0.002 State funded 176 (44.4%) 23 (5.8%) 0.086 < 5 years 64 (16.2%) 4 (1.0%) 0.022
Pharm.D 276 (69.7%) 19 (4.8%) Private 184 (46.5%) 13 (3.3%) 5–10 years 219 (55.3%) 17 (4.3%)
Overseas 10 (2.5%) 4 (1.0%) > 10 years 77 (19.4%) 15 (3.8%)
To be available for clinician consultation during ward rounds B/M Pharm 71 (17.9%) 16 (4.0%) 0.031 State funded 169 (42.7%) 30 (7.6%) 0.031 < 5 years 65 (16.4%) 3 (0.8%) 0.009
Pharm.D 268 (67.1%) 27 (6.8%) Private 181 (45.7%) 16 (4%) 5–10 years 211 (53.3%) 25 (6.3%)
Overseas 11 (2.8%) 3 (0.8%) > 10 years 74 (18.7%) 18 (4.5%)
To communicate or liaise with other healthcare professionals delivering patient care to facilitate positive health outcomes B/M Pharm 78 (19.7%) 9 (2.3%) 0.005 State funded 193 (48.7%) 6 (1.5%) 0.000* < 5 years 67 (16.9%) 1 (0.3%) 0.031
Pharm.D 269 (67.9%) 26 (6.6%) Private 163 (41.2%) 34 (8.6%) 5–10 years 209 (52.8%) 27 (6.8%)
Overseas 9 (2.3%) 5 (1.3%) > 10 years 80 (20.2%) 12 (3.0%)
To collaborate with other healthcare professionals as part of a multidisciplinary team B/M Pharm 71 (17.9%) 16 (4.0%) 0.001 State funded 172 (43.4%) 27 (6.8%) 0.293 < 5 years 65 (16.4%) 3 (0.8%) 0.001
Pharm.D 269 (67.9%) 26 (5.5%) Private 177 (44.7%) 20 (5.1%) 5–10 years 213 (53.8%) 23 (5.8%)
Overseas 9 (2.3%) 5 (1.3%) > 10 years 71 (17.9%) 21 (5.3%)
To provide advice to patients about their medication/s and/or health conditions B/M Pharm 71 (17.9%) 16 (4.0%) 0.000* State funded 175 (44.2%) 24 (6.1%) 0.083 < 5 years 64 (16.2%) 4 (1.0%) 0.000*
Pharm.D 278 (70.2%) 17 (4.3%) Private 184 (46.5%) 13 (3.3%) 5–10 years 222 (56.1%) 14 (3.5%)
Overseas 10 (2.5%) 4 (1.0%) > 10 years 73 (18.4%) 19 (4.8%)
To dispense and check supply of medicines to patient (counting pills, labelling, and accuracy checking) B/M Pharm 67 (16.9%) 20 (5.1%) 0.036 State funded 161 (40.7%) 38 (9.6%) 0.018 < 5 years 63 (15.9%) 5 (1.3%) 0.021
Pharm.D 259 (65.4%) 36 (9.1%) Private 176 (44.4%) 21 (5.3%) 5–10 years 203 (51.3%) 33 (8.3%)
Overseas 11 (2.8%) 3 (0.8%) > 10 years 71 (17.9%) 21 (5.3%)
To provide a “closed shop” service: receiving prescriptions from a practitioner and dispense medicine to a patient only B/M Pharm 11 (2.8%) 76 (19.2%) 0.001 State funded 54 (13.6%) 145 (36.6%) 0.000 < 5 years 16 (4.0%) 52 (13.1%) 0.623
Pharm.D 59 (14.9%) 236 (59.6%) Private 24 (6.1%) 173 (43.7%) 5–10 years 46 (11.6%) 190 (48.0%)
Overseas 8 (2.0%) 6 (1.5%) > 10 years 16 (4.0%) 76 (19.2%)
To check that prescriptions are written for the correct dose for the patient B/M Pharm 60 (15.2%) 27 (6.8%) 0.000* State funded 152 (38.4%) 47 (11.9%) 0.955 < 5 years 52 (13.1%) 16 (4.0%) 0.014
Pharm.D 239 (60.4%) 56 (14.1%) Private 150 (37.9%) 47 (11.9%) 5–10 years 190 (48.0%) 46 (11.6%)
Overseas 3 (0.8%) 11 (2.8%) > 10 years 60 (15.2%) 32 (8.1%)
To check that prescriptions do not have any drug-drug interactions B/M Pharm 55 (13.9%) 32 (8.1%) 0.017 State funded 156 (39.4%) 43 (10.9%) 0.093 < 5 years 61 (15.4%) 7 (1.8%) 0.004
Pharm.D 231 (58.3%) 64 (16.2%) Private 140 (35.4%) 57 (14.4%) 5–10 years 173 (43.7%) 63 (15.9%)
Overseas 10 (2.5%) 4 (1.0%) > 10 years 62 (15.7%) 30 (7.6%)
To check that a prescription is not contraindicated for the patient B/M Pharm 67 (16.9%) 20 (5.1%) 0.036 State funded 161 (40.7%) 38 (9.6%) 0.018 < 5 years 63 (15.9%) 5 (1.3%) 0.021
Pharm.D 259 (65.4%) 36 (9.1%) Private 176 (44.4%) 21 (5.3%) 5–10 years 203 (51.3%) 33 (8.3%)
Overseas 11 (2.8%) 3 (0.8%) > 10 years 71 (17.9%) 21 (5.3%)
To advise clinicians and others about the cost-effectiveness of medicines B/M Pharm 74 (18.7%) 13 (3.3%) 0.002 State funded 176 (44.4%) 23 (5.8%) 0.086 < 5 years 64 (16.2%) 4 (1.0%) 0.022
Pharm.D 276 (69.7%) 19 (4.8%) Private 184 (46.5%) 13 (3.3%) 5–10 years 219 (55.3%) 17 (4.3%)
Overseas 10 (2.5%) 4 (1.0%) > 10 years 77 (19.4%) 15 (3.8%)
To formally review a patient’s therapy and to make necessary changes to help promote positive health outcomes B/M Pharm 71 (17.9%) 16 (4.0%) 0.031 State funded 169 (42.7%) 30 (7.6%) 0.031 < 5 years 65 (16.4%) 3 (0.8%) 0.009
Pharm.D 268 (67.7%) 27 (6.8%) Private 181 (45.7%) 16 (4.0%) 5–10 years 211 (53.3%) 25 (6.3%)
Overseas 11 (2.8%) 3 (0.8%) > 10 years 74 (18.7%) 18 (4.5%)
To supervise repeat prescriptions for patients according to agreed protocols B/M Pharm 71 (17.9%) 16 (4.0%) 0.000* State funded 172 (43.4%) 27 (6.8%) 0.035 < 5 years 65 (16.4%) 3 (0.8%) 0.001
Pharm.D 275 (69.5) 20 (5.1%) Private 183 (46.2%) 14 (3.5%) 5–10 years 217 (54.8%) 19 (4.8%)
Overseas 9 (2.3%) 5 (1.3%) > 10 years 73 (18.4%) 19 (4.8%)
To make dose adjustments to a patient’s medicine using protocols established with prescribers B/M Pharm 71 (17.9%) 16 (4.0%) 0.000* State funded 175 (44.2%) 24 (6.1%) 0.062 < 5 years 64 (16.2%) 4 (1.0%) 0.000*
Pharm.D 278 (70.2%) 17 (4.3%) Private 184 (46.5%) 13 (3.3%) 5–10 years 222 (56.1%) 14 (3.5%)
Overseas 10 (2.5%) 4 (1.0%) > 10 years 73 (18.4%) 19 (4.8%)
To prescribe therapy for a patient following a clinician’s diagnosis (partnership or supplementary prescribing) B/M Pharm 79 (19.9%) 8 (2.0%) 0.001 State funded 187 (47.2%) 12 (3.0%) 0.816 < 5 years 66 (16.7%) 2 (0.5%0 0.032
Pharm.D 282 (71.2) 13 (3.3%) Private 184 (46.5%) 13 (3.3%) 5–10 years 224 (56.6%) 12 (3.0%)
Overseas 10 (2/5%) 4 (1.0%) > 10 years 81 (20.5%) 11 (2.8%)
To prescribe therapy for a patient independent of clinician’s diagnosis following an initial patient assessment (independent prescribing) B/M Pharm 55 (13.9%) 32 (8.1%) 0.017 State funded 156 (39.4%) 43 (10.9%) 0.093 < 5 years 61 (15.4%) 7 (1.8%) 0.004
Pharm.D 231 (58.7%) 64 (16.2%) Private 140 (35.4%) 57 (14.4%) 5–10 years 173 (43.7%) 63 (15.9%)
Overseas 10 (2.5%) 4 (1.0%) > 10 years 62 (15.7%) 30 (7.6%)
  1. * = significant p-value with Cramer V