Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison of Admission vs. Discharge from ED by Patient Demographics, Socioeconomic Factors, Measures of Illness, System Factors, and Appropriateness of Admission

From: Factors associated with low-acuity hospital admissions in a public safety-net setting: a cross-sectional study

  All Patients (n = 452) Admitted from ED (n = 349) Discharged from ED (n = 103) P
Patient Demographics
 Age, mean [95%CI] 55.8 [54.3–57.3] 56.6 [54.9–58.3] 53.0 [49.7–56.2] 0.046
 Female, n (%) 166 (36.7) 132 (37.8) 34 (33.0) 0.373
 Race/Ethnicity, n (%), 4 missing
  American Indian/Alaska Native 22 (4.9) 17 (4.9) 5 (4.9) 0.876
  Asian 39 (8.7) 31 (9.0) 8 (7.8)  
  Black/African-American 122 (27.2) 90 (26.0) 32 (31.4)  
  Hispanic/Latino 36 (8.0) 26 (7.5) 10 (9.8)  
  Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 4 (0.9) 3 (0.9) 1 (1.0)  
  White, non-Hispanic 218 (48.7) 174 (50.3) 44 (43.1)  
  Multiple 7 (1.6) 5 (1.4) 2 (2.0)  
 English Primary Language, n (%) 371 (82.1) 291 (83.4) 80 (77.7) 0.184
 Married, n (%) 78 (17.3) 56 (16.0) 22 (21.4) 0.210
Socioeconomic Factors
 Insurance, n (%)     0.058
  Public 388 (85.8) 307 (90.1) 81 (78.6)  
  Private 21 (4.7) 14 (4.0) 7 (6.8)  
  None 43 (9.5) 28 (8.0) 15 (14.6)  
 Employment, n (%), 23 missing     0.397
  Employed 26 (6.1) 18 (5.3) 8 (8.8)  
  Unemployed 161 (37.5) 123 (36.4) 38 (41.8)  
  Disabled 112 (26.1) 91 (26.9) 21 (23.1)  
  Retired 130 (30.3) 106 (31.4) 24 (26.4)  
 Living Situation, n (%), 3 missing     0.008
  Stable housing 261 (58.1) 190 (54.9) 71 (69.0)  
  Unstable housing/homeless 148 (33.0) 127 (36.7) 21 (20.4)  
  Institution (SNF/AFH/Jail) 40 (8.9) 29 (8.4) 11 (10.7)  
Measures of Illness
 CCI, mean [95%CI] 3.23 [2.98–3.49] 3.31 [3.02–3.60] 2.96 [2.40–3.52] 0.265
 ESI, mean [95%CI] 2.84 [2.79–2.89] 2.87 [2.81–2.92] 2.75 [2.64–2.85] 0.041
System-Level Factors
  “Off-hours” presentation, n (%) 287 (63.5) 232 (66.5) 55 (53.4) 0.015
Healthcare Utilization
 ED visits in previous 30 days, n (%)     0.652
  None 265 (58.6) 207 (59.3) 58 (56.3)  
  1 visit 103 (22.8) 82 (23.5) 21 (20.4)  
  2 visits 46 (10.2) 32 (9.2) 14 (13.6)  
  3–5 visits 32 (7.1) 24 (6.9) 8 (7.8)  
  6+ visits 6 (1.3) 4 (1.1) 2 (2.0)  
Appropriateness Assessment, n (%)     < 0.0001
 Probably 253 (56.0) 246 (70.5) 7 (6.8)  
 Probably NOT 158 (34.9) 80 (22.9) 78 (75.7)  
 Definitely NOT 41 (9.1) 23 (6.6) 18 (17.5)  
  1. CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, ESI Emergency Severity Index, SNF Skilled Nursing Facility, AFH Adult Family Home