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Table 1 Background characteristics at the time point for 2nd birth; migrant (n = 68,392) and Norwegian-born women (n = 369,528)a

From: Country of first birth and neonatal outcomes in migrant and Norwegian-born parous women in Norway: a population-based study

  Migrant women’s first birth Norwegian-born women’s first birth
Before immigration After immigration Outside Norway In Norway
n % n % n % n %
Total 21,793 31.9 46,599 68.1 4602 1.2 364,926 98.8
Age (years)
  < 25 3027 13.9 6631 14.2 1419 30.8 46,724 12.8
 25–34 14,535 66.7 31,949 68.6 2991 65.0 267,908 73.4
  ≥ 35 4231 19.4 8019 17.2 192 4.2 50,294 13.8
Single statusb 1365 6.3 3073 6.6 442 9.6 16,899 4.6
Mother’s education
 No education 367 2.7 653 1.8 0 0.0 3 0.0
 Primary education 3889 28.3 10,275 28.3 1112 24.2 58,473 16.0
 Secondary school 3518 25.6 9244 25.4 1451 31.6 135,373 37.1
 University/college 5985 43.5 16,188 44.5 2023 44.1 170,715 46.8
Mother’s education, missing 8034 36.9 10,239 22.0 16 0.4 362 0.1
Mother’s income
  ≤ 25 percentile 5194 41.9 9386 26.8 692 15.9 61,779 18.0
 25–50 percentile 1971 15.9 5981 17.1 674 15.5 83,609 24.3
 50–75 percentile 2784 22.4 8838 25.2 1143 26.3 98,455 28.6
  ≥ 75 percentile 2455 19.8 10,839 30.9 1839 42.3 100,274 29.1
Mother’s income, missing 9389 43.1 11,555 24.8 254 5.5 20,809 5.7
Smoking in early pregnancyc 1203 7.8 1611 4.7 709 17.7 32,810 14.0
Previous stillbirth 214 1.2 235 0.6 77 1.8 1075 0.4
Migration
 Maternal origin (GBD)
  High income country 3864 17.7 10,266 22.0 4602 100.0 364,926 100.0
  Central Europe, Eastern Europe & Central Asia 7488 34.4 11,076 23.8     
  Sub-Saharan Africa 2714 12.5 5491 11.8     
  North Africa & Middle East 2482 11.4 7797 16.7     
  South Asia 873 4.0 3208 6.9     
  Southeast Asia, East Asia & Oceania 3625 16.6 7516 16.1     
  Latin America & Caribbean 747 3.4 1245 2.7     
 Reason for immigration
  Nordic migrants 1720 8.0 5514 12.0     
  Work/education 3170 14.8 7960 17.3     
  Family reunion/establishment 12,789 59.5 25,338 55.1     
  Refugee 3817 17.8 7137 15.5     
 Reason for immigration, missing 297 1.4 650 1.4     
 Length of Residence
   < 2 years 10,659 48.9 1801 3.9     
  2–5 years 8618 39.5 22,952 49.3     
  6–9 years 1751 8.0 13,116 28.2     
   ≥ 10 years 765 3.5 8730 18.7     
 Age at migration < 18 years 367 1.7 5231 11.2     
 Foreign-born father 13,359 81.7 29,094 64.7 594 13.3 21,058 5.8
 Paternal origin, missing 5431 24.9 1636 3.5 148 3.2 3282 0.9
  1. aPercentages are calculated from non-missing data if not otherwise noted
  2. bIncludes unmarried, single, divorced, separated, widowed and other/missing.
  3. cData on smoking from 1999 onwards