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Table 1 Demographics of study population stratified by payment model. a The presence and number of non-complex medical conditions were identified using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s (AHRQ) Chronic Condition Indicator, a publicly available diagnosis-based classification system that identifies International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes as chronic or not chronic [23]

From: Pediatric outpatient utilization by differing Medicaid payment models in the United States

Characteristic Total Fee for Service Capitated P-value
N = 711,008 (100%) N = 66,980 (9.4%) N = 644,028 (90.6%)  
Age (years)     < 0.001
 1–2 87,730 (12.3) 7630 (11.4) 80,100 (12.4)  
 3–5 136,396 (19.2) 9565 (14.3) 126,831 (19.7)  
 6–12 304,444 (42.8) 29,284 (43.7) 275,160 (42.7)  
 13–18 182,438 (25.7) 20,501 (30.6) 161,937 (25.1)  
Sex     0.57
 Male 362,424 (51.0) 34,212 (51.1) 328,212 (51.0)  
 Female 348,584 (49.0) 32,768 (48.9) 315,816 (49.0)  
Race/Ethnicity     < 0.001
 White 312,358 (43.9) 45,643 (68.1) 266,715 (41.4)  
 Black 316,814 (44.6) 16,392 (24.5) 300,422 (46.6)  
 Hispanic 44,335 (6.2) 1880 (2.8) 42,455 (6.6)  
 Other 37,501 (5.3) 3065 (4.6) 34,436 (5.3)  
Number of Non-Complex Medical Conditions   < 0.001
 0 368,071 (51.8) 34,576 (51.6) 333,495 (51.8)  
 1 191,631 (27.0) 17,286 (25.8) 174,345 (27.1)  
 2 85,889 (12.1) 7381 (11.0) 78,508 (12.2)  
 3+ 65,417 (9.2) 7737 (11.6) 57,680 (9.0)