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Table 2 Sampling of Empirical Studies of Complexity and Innovation in Healthcare

From: Examining innovation in hospital units: a complex adaptive systems approach

Author, Date Findings related to complexity Innovation Focus Measurement of Complexity Other factors related to innovation and complexity
Cockerill et al., 1999 Complexity was not found to be a significant predictor of adoption of a managerial innovation (resource planning tool) Adoption Teaching hospital status Perceived value and accuracy of innovation, ease of use, resource planning, and physician support
Glandon et al., 1995 Complexity was correlated with the adoption of a managerial innovation (cost accounting systems) Adoption Teaching hospital status n/a
Meyer and Goes, 1988 A combined scale of organizational size, complexity, and strategy (eagerness to penetrate new markets) significantly impacted innovation assimilation Adoption Availability of 24 distinct medical services; i.e., horizontal differentiation. Medical specialization and CEOs as influential proponents of innovation
Hage and Dewar, 1973 Complexity was significantly correlated with the adoption of new programs. Adaptation and Adoption Two complexity variables: number of different operational specialties and involvement in professional societies CEOs and leaders as influential proponents of innovation
Hage and Aiken, 1967 Complexity was correlated with the rate of program change, but not a significant predictor when controlling for other organizational variables (age, size) Adoption Three complexity variables- number of different professional specialties, amount of professional training, and the extra-organizational professional activity Staff attitudes toward change was slightly, but negatively correlated with the rate of program change (−0.14)