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Table 3 Two-part regression model: adjusted marginal differences in healthcare expenditures among U.S. adults with arthritis by race and ethnicity 2008–2016 (n = 53,058)

From: Examining racial and ethnic trends and differences in annual healthcare expenditures among a nationally representative sample of adults with arthritis from 2008 to 2016

 Marginal difference95% Confidence intervalP-value
Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White (Reference) 
 Non-Hispanic Black-$946-$1355 to -$537***
 Hispanic-$939-$480 to -$1397***
 Other-$1178-$1713 to -$644***
Year
 2008–2010 (Reference) 
 2011–2013$758$341 to $1176**
 2014–2016$897$51 to $1281***
Predisposing
 Age-$24.36-$39 to -$9***
 Sex
  Male (Reference) 
  Female$362$22 to $701*
 Region
  Northeast (Reference) 
  Midwest-$86-$830 to $99 
  South-$451-$883 to -$20 
  West-$45-$524 to $434 
Enabling
 Education
  < Bachelor’s Degree (Reference) 
  > = Bachelor’s degree$1119$708 to $1530 
 Employment
  Employed (Reference) 
  Unemployed$2305$1839 to $2771 
 Poverty Category [family income to poverty line %]
  High income [> = 400] (Reference) 
  Middle Income [> = 200 & < 400]-$851-$1295 to -$407**
  Low Income [> = 125 & < 200]-$845-$1415 to -$275*
  Near Poor [> = 100 & < 125]-$1035-$1609 to -$460**
  Poor [< 100]-$966-$1518 to -$415**
 Insurance Status
  Any Private (Reference) 
  Public only-$830-$1214 to -$445***
  Uninsured-$3937-$4500 to -$3373***
 Access to Care
  Able to get care (Reference) 
  Unable to get care-$1591-$2152 to -$1030***
  No delays in receiving care (Reference) 
  Delayed in receiving care$2629$1905 to $3353***
Need
 Comorbidity Count (0–8)$1575$1427 to $1722***
 Functional Limitations
  Did not need help with ADL (Reference) 
  Needed help with ADL$5241$4184 to $6298***
  Did not need help with IADL (Reference) 
  Needed help with IADL$3829$3118 to $4540***
 BMI
  Normal weight (Reference) 
  Under weight$1407$205 to $2609*
  Overweight$91-$358 to $540 
  Obese$452$40 to $863 
 Joint Pain
  No Joint Pain (Reference) 
  Had joint pain$1349$914 to $1785***
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001