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Table 1 CSO intervention strategies

From: A strategic approach to social accountability: Bwalo forums within the reproductive maternal and child health accountability ecosystem in Malawi

PACHIMNCH dashboardsHealth facility• Utilised existing Health Management Information System (HMIS) dataData visualisation
• Data collected by District Implementation Teams (DITs)
• Data validated by District Health Management Teams (DHMTs)
• Data packaged into ‘dashboards’
QUIC survey assessmentsHealth facility• Conducted at Basic Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (BEmONC) facilities• Data collection to assess facility readiness
• Data visualisation
• Data collected by DITs
• Data validated by DHMTs
• Data packaged into QUIC ‘scorecards’
Community bwaloCommunity• Meeting based on traditional method of dialogueCitizen feedback and dialogue (linking citizens to health facility)
• Held quarterly
• Interface between citizens and health facility
District bwaloDistrict• Meeting based on traditional method of dialogueCitizen feedback and dialogue (linking citizens to district-level representatives)
• Held per month or per quarter
• Interface between citizens and district-level officials
CSO Task Force (member)National(see below)(see below)
YONECORadio Listening ClubCommunity• 10 per districtCitizen empowerment
• Contributed programming to YONECO FM (YFM)
Theatre for DevelopmentCommunity• Community trained by Cultural Theatre TroupeCitizen empowerment
• Edutainment through drama
YONECO Radio (YFM)National• RMNCAH content broadcast three times per weekData dissemination
• Segments called ‘The Meeting Point on Health’
• Broadcasts conducted in local languages, Chichewa and Tumbuka
CSO Task Force (member)National(see below)(see below)
MHENHealth budget analysis, tracking and trainingDistrict• Trained councillors, CSO representatives, DHMTs• Increase budget transparency
• Inform District Implementation Plan process
Health budget analysisNational• Desk review of 2017 health budgetAnalyse for RMNCAH financial gaps
Meetings with Parliamentary Health Committee, cabinet ministers, etc.National• Monthly, quarterly and annual meetings• Highlight key findings from budget analysis
• RMNCAH advocacy using project data
CSO Task Force (Chair)National• Developed Terms of Reference (ToRs) for engaging citizensNational-level platform for social accountability stakeholders to share experiences and lessons learned
• Six meetings held per year (one every 2 months)
• Multiple INGOs and CSOs included in proceedings
  1. Abbreviations: BEmONC Basic Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care, CSO Civil Society Organisation, DHMT District Health Management Team, DIT District Implementation Team, HMIS Health Management Information System, INGO International Non-Governmental Organisation, MHEN Malawi Health Equity Network, MNCH Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, PACHI Parent and Child Health Initiative, QUIC Quality Of Institutional Care, RMNCAH Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health, ToR Terms of Reference, YFM YONECO FM, YONECO Youth Net and Counselling