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Table 2 General Linear Mixed Models with healthcare system inputs as predictors of PROs (n = 3588)

From: Healthcare system inputs and patient-reported outcomes: a study in adults with congenital heart defect from 15 countries

 Physical health statusMental health statusPsychological distressTotal health risk scoreQuality of life
Univariable analyses
 Density physicians3.16 (0.78) **1.90 (0.71) *−0.84 (0.20) **−2.31 (1.30)1.59 (0.69) *
 Density nurses and midwifes0.50 (0.23) *0.22 (0.19)−0.13 (0.06)−0.73 (0.27) *0.07 (0.18)
 Density beds0.03 (0.04)−0.01 (0.03)−0.0008 (0.01)0.04 (0.05)−0.06 (0.02) *
Multivariable analyses
 Density physicians3.11 (0.84) **1.51 (0.59) *−0.72 (0.20) **−2.41 (1.26)1.33 (0.69)
 Density nurses and midwifes0.51 (0.23) *0.15 (0.16)−0.12 (0.05) *−0.77 (0.25) **0.05 (0.18)
 Density beds0.05 (0.04)0.002 (0.02)−0.002 (0.01)0.04 (0.05)−0.06 (0.02) *
Sensitivity analyses
 Density physicians (without India)2.54 (1.14) *2.00 (0.77) *−0.79 (0.27) *−1.31 (1.66)2.09 (0.90) *
 Density beds (without Japan)−0.01 (0.07)−0.04 (0.04)− 0.008 (0.02)−0.006 (0.09)− 0.02 (0.04)
  1. Values in the table are Estimates (Standard Error) of the General Linear Mixed Models; * refers to significance of estimate (see below); Multivariable analyses are adjusted for patient characteristics (sex, age, employment status, marital status, highest educational level, complexity of the health disease and the patient’s functional ability) and unmeasured country differences (since country has been seen as random effect in the analyses). Physical and mental health status: higher scores reflect better perceived health; Psychological distress: higher scores reflect more symptoms of depression and anxiety; Total health risk score: higher scores reflect unhealthier behaviour; Quality of life: higher scores reflect higher quality of life; Density of physicians per 1000 people; Density of nurses per 1000 people; Density of beds per 10,000 people
  2. * < 0.05, ** < 0.01, *** < 0.001