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Table 2 Patient cohorts characteristics segmented by HbA1c range

From: Improving management of glycaemic control in people with T2DM in primary care: estimation of the impact on the clinical complications and associated costs

  All cohorts
(N = 10,000)
Cohort 1 48 to ≤58 mmol/mol
(N = 2500)
Cohort 2 58 to ≤64 mmol/mol
(N = 2500)
Cohort 3 64 to ≤75 mmol/mol
(N = 2500)
Cohort 4 > 75 mmol/mol
(N = 2500)
Age [years (SD)] 68.1 (11.5) 68.4 (11.6) 69.1 (10.8) 68.9 (10.9) 65.8 (12.2)
Sex (women) 4811 (48.1%) 1158 (46.3%) 1250 (50.0%) 1260 (50.4%) 1143 (45.7%)
Diabetes duration [years (SD)] 7.33 (5.89) 5.97 (5.26) 6.56 (5.21) 8.07 (6.20) 8.73 (6.38)
BMI [kg/m2 (SD)] 30.5 (5.18) 30.4 (5.12) 30.4 (4.92) 30.3 (5.35) 30.8 (5.30)
Obesity 4510 (48.2%) 1082 (46.9%) 1141 (48.5%) 1075 (45.4%) 1212 (52.0%)
Hypertension 7102 (71.0%) 1794 (71.8%) 1794 (71.8%) 1842 (73.7%) 1672 (66.9%)
Smoking habit
 Never smoker 6177 (63.4%) 1535 (63.7%) 1581 (64.8%) 1594 (64.9%) 1467 (60.1%)
 Current smoker 1358 (13.9%) 323 (13.4%) 294 (12.1%) 322 (13.1%) 419 (17.2%)
 Ex-smoker 2207 (22.7%) 551 (22.9%) 563 (23.1%) 540 (22.0%) 553 (22.7%)
SBP [mmHg (SD)] 137 (13.4) 136 (13.3) 136 (13.1) 137 (12.8) 139 (14.0)
DBP [mmHg (SD)] 76.3 (8.42) 75.7 (8.43) 76.0 (8.11) 76.1 (8.29) 77.4 (8.76)
LDL Cholesterol [mg/ml (SD)] 111 (32.8) 112 (32.2) 112 (32.4) 110 (31.0) 113 (35.5)
Chronic complications
 Microalbuminuria 793 (14.1%) 144 (11.1%) 164 (11.7%) 195 (13.3%) 290 (20.0%)
 Macroalbuminuria 131 (2.33%) 24 (1.86%) 25 (1.78%) 24 (1.64%) 58 (3.99%)
 Chronic renal failure [(eGFR< 60 ml/min (SD)] 1593 (18.5%) 414 (20.2%) 401 (18.2%) 424 (19.4%) 354 (16.3%)
 Retinopathy 751 (7.51%) 119 (4.76%) 129 (5.16%) 203 (8.12%) 300 (12.0%)
 Neuropathy 924 (16.5%) 168 (13.0%) 189 (13.4%) 219 (15.0%) 348 (24.0%)
 Stroke 764 (7.64%) 196 (7.84%) 179 (7.16%) 199 (7.96%) 190 (7.60%)
 Coronary Heart Disease 1280 (12.8%) 301 (12.0%) 300 (12.0%) 314 (12.6%) 365 (14.6%)
 Heart Failure 555 (5.55%) 159 (6.36%) 110 (4.40%) 134 (5.36%) 152 (6.08%)
 Peripheral arteriopathy 477 (4.77%) 109 (4.36%) 95 (3.80%) 125 (5.00%) 148 (5.92%)
 Any macrovascular 2497 (25.0%) 619 (24.8%) 565 (22.6%) 630 (25.2%) 683 (27.3%)
Coexistence of complications:
 No complications 6408 (64.1%) 1698 (67.9%) 1723 (68.9%) 1572 (62.9%) 1415 (56.6%)
 only macrovascular 867 (8.67%) 250 (10.0%) 196 (7.84%) 220 (8.80%) 201 (8.04%)
 only microvascular 1095 (10.9%) 183 (7.32%) 212 (8.48%) 298 (11.9%) 402 (16.1%)
 both 1630 (16.3%) 369 (14.8%) 369 (14.8%) 410 (16.4%) 482 (19.3%)
Steps of antidiabetic treatment
 Life-style only 2286 (22.9%) 1042 (41.7%) 663 (26.5%) 358 (14.3%) 223 (8.92%)
 Non insulin Antidiabetics 6015 (60.2%) 1333 (53.3%) 1630 (65.2%) 1693 (67.7%) 1359 (54.4%)
 Insulin 1699 (17.0%) 125 (5.00%) 207 (8.28%) 449 (18.0%) 918 (36.7%)