Skip to main content

Table 2 Effect of additional AHA on activity limitation outcomes

From: The effect of delegation of therapy to allied health assistants on patient and organisational outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Outcome MD (95%CI) SMD (95%CI)
Britton 2008 [27] Time to stand (sec) 0.1 (−0.25 to 0.45) 0.25 (− 0.68 to 1.18)
  Number of sit-to-stands in 1-min 3.00 (0.94 to 6.94) 0.76 (− 0.20 to 1.72)
Howe 2006 [30] Time to stand (sec) −0.70 (− 2.81 to 1.41) −0.25 (− 0.96 to 0.47)
  Time to sit (sec) 0.20 (−0.96 to 1.36) 0.12 (− 0.60 to 0.85)
Isbel 2014 [31] Lawton ADL scale (units) −3.48 (− 8.85 to 1.89) −0.51 (− 1.28 to 0.25)
  Barthel index (units) −0.35 (− 4.04 to 3.33) −0.07 (− 0.83 to 0.67)
Jones 2006 [32] TUGT (sec) (change score) 4.74 (1.54 to 7.94)b 0.64 (0.11 to 1.16)b
  Barthel Index (units) (change score) 1.00 (−4.17 to 6.17)b 0.07 (− 0.28 to 0.42)b
Lincoln 1999 [33] Rivermead Arm (units) 0 (− 1.70 to 1.70)b 0 (−0.30 to 0.30)b
ARAT (units) 1.00 (−8.43 to 10.43)b 0.03 (−0.27 to 0.33)b
  Barthel Index (units) −0.33 (− 2.59 to 1.93)b − 0.04 (− 0.34 to 0.26)b
  Rivermead gross motor (units) −1.00 (− 2.58 to 0.58)b −0.19 (− 0.49 to 0.11)b
  Ten hole peg test (units) −3.67 (− 15.07 to 17.73)b − 0.09 (− 0.39 to 0.20)b
Parry 1999 [34] Rivermead Arm (units) 2.00 (0.66 to 3.34)b 0.71 (0.20 to 1.22)b
  ARAT (units) 11.66 (2.42 to 20.90)b 0.59 (0.08 to 1.10)b
  Barthel Index (units) 2.00 (− 0.51 to 4.51)b 0.37 (− 0.13 to 0.87)b
Niemela 2012 [35] Female   
  Sit to stand 5 times (sec) −0.60 (− 4.50 to 3.30) −0.05 (− 0.35 to 0.25)
  Walking speed (m/sec) 0 (−0.14 to 0.14) 0 (− 0.30 to 0.30)
  Berg balance scale (units) 0.50 (−4.75 to 5.75) 0.29 (−0.27 to 0.33)
  Male   
  Sit to stand 5 times (sec) 1.7 (−2.21 to 5.61) 0.12 (−0.15 to 0.39)
  Walking speed (m/sec) 0 (−0.15 to 0.15) 0 (−0.27 to 0.27)
  Berg balance scale (units) −6.2 (− 10.87 to − 1.53) − 0.36 (− 0.64 to − 0.09)
Nolan 2008 [36] Elderly mobility scale (units) 2.46 (N/A)a N/A
Parry 2016 [37] SPPB (units) 0.90 (− 1.06 to 2.87)a N/A
  Functional reach test (units) 0.91 (− 0.85 to 2.66)a N/A
Parsons 2018 [38] Inter RAI-CA (units)   
  bathing 0.15 (N/A)a N/A
  dressing lower body 0.10 (N/A)a N/A
  Hygiene 0.09 (N/A)a N/A
  Locomotion 0.08 (N/A)a N/A
  Toilet use 0.03 (N/A)a N/A
  Meal preparation 0.08 (N/A)a N/A
  House work − 0.03 (N/A)a N/A
  Medication 0.01 (N/A)a N/A
  Stairs −0.03 (N/A)a N/A
Pengas 2015 [39] Hip arthroplasty   
  Time to mobilise with two sticks (days) 0.42 (0.12 to 0.72) 0.30 (0.09 to 0.51)
  Knee arthroplasty   
  Time to mobilise with two sticks (days) 0.58 (0.27 to 0.89) 0.41 (0.15 to 0.67)
Salisbury 2010 [40] Rivermead mobility index (units) −1.93 (−11.58 to 7.72)b − 0.23 (− 1.42 to 0.97)b
  TUGT (sec) −3.46 (− 26.49 to 19.57)b −0.19 (− 1.51 to 1.13)b
  10 m walk test (sec) −9.43 (−47.73 to 28.87)b − 0.33 (− 1.66 to 1.00)b
  Shuttle walk test (m) −14.50 (− 375.82 to 346.82)b − 0.05 (− 1.36 to 1.27)
Shearer 2013 [41] Barthel Index (units) (change score) 4.27 (N/A)a N/A
Siebens 2000 [42] Number of independent ADL 0.50 (0 to 1.00) 0.24 (0.10 to 0.49)
  NHIS physical activity scale (units) 0.70 (− 0.58 to 1.98) 0.13 (− 0.11 to 0.37)
Walsh 2015 [44] Rivermead mobility index (units) 0 (− 0.78 to 0.78) 0 (− 0.26 to 0.26)
  TUGT (secs) 0.06 (− 1.31 to 1.43) 0.01 (− 0.28 to 0.31)
Weindling 2007 [43] GMFM-66 (units) 4.5 (− 10.93 to 19.93) 0.16 (− 0.38 to 0.70)
  Vineland adaptive behaviour daily living scale (units) 1.0 (− 7.04 to 9.04) 0.07 (− 0.47 to 0.61)
  1. ADL Activities of daily living, AHA Allied health assistant, ARAT Action research arm test; Inter RAI-CA Inter RAI contact assessment, FIM Functional independence measure, GMFM-66 Gross motor function measure, MD Mean difference, N/A Not available or unable to be calculated, SMD Standardised mean difference, NHIS National health interview survey, SPPB Short physical performance battery, TUGT Timed up and go test. Bold text indicates statistically significant difference between groups favouring allied health assistant group
  2. Positive MD favours additional allied health assistant group
  3. aMD reported in study
  4. bMD calculated from converted medians