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Table 1 Descriptive summaries of the cohort according to the admission index. S.D. stands for standard deviation. Repeated admission and discharge transitions were observed for the same subject. All patients were hospitalized at least once: summing 38,105 (discharged) and 4,766 (in-hospital deaths) we obtain 42,871 (see the first column)

From: Evaluating the effect of healthcare providers on the clinical path of heart failure patients through a semi-Markov, multi-state model

 1st hosp.2nd hosp.3rd hosp.4th hosp.5th hosp.
patients42,87111,3054,3181,914929
discharge (%)38,105 (88.88)10,025 (88.68)3,821 (88.49)1,687 (88.14)827 (89.02)
in-hosp. death (%)4,766 (11.12)1,280 (11.32)497 (11.51)227 (11.86)102 (10.98)
death after disch. (%)14,569 (33.98)3,122 (27.62)1,069 (24.76)385 (20.11)172 (18.51)
censoring after disch. (%)12,231 (28.53)2,585 (22.87)838 (19.41)373 (19.49)154 (16.58)
Mean LOS (S.D.)13.95 (15.59)12.81 (13.32)13.07 (12.64)13.28 (12.57)14.07 (14.11)
Mean age (S.D.)76.79 (11.69)78.28 (10.71)78.56 (10.31)78.46 (10.02)78.35 (9.97)
female (%)21,876 (51.03)5,416 (47.91)1,940 (44.93)811 (42.37)378 (40.69)
≥3 comorb.1 (%)19,269 (44.95)7,535 (66.65)3,345 (77.47)1,611 (84.17)819 (88.16)
# procedures2     
0 procedures36,096 (84.2)9,617 (85.07)3,740 (86.61)1,709 (89.29)851 (91.6)
1 procedure2,546 (5.94)795 (7.03)321 (7.43)136 (7.11)51 (5.49)
2 procedures3,149 (7.35)783 (6.93)226 (5.23)64 (3.34)27 (2.91)
3 procedures1,012 (2.36)109 (0.96)31 (0.72)5 (0.26) 
4 procedures67 (0.16)1 (0.01%)   
5 procedures1 (<10−3)    
  1. 1The considered comorbidities are: metastatic cancer, congestive heart failure, dementia, renal failure, weight loss, hemiplegia, alcohol abuse, malignant tumor, arrhythmia, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, coagulopathy, complicated diabetes, anemia, fluid and electrolyte disorders, liver disease, peripheral vascular disease, psychosis, pulmonary circulation disorder, HIV status and hypertension.
  2. 2The considered procedures are: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery, Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty, Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator, Cardiovascular surgery and surgery of other types.