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Table 1 Antibiotic prescription frequency before and after the implementation of the antimicrobial stewardship feea

From: Impact of antimicrobial stewardship fee on prescribing for Japanese pediatric patients with upper respiratory infections

 Medical facilities that claimed the AS feebMedical facilities that did not claim the AS feebAll medical facilitiesb
BeforeAfterBeforeAfterBeforeAfter
Tetracyclines (J01AA)15 (0.5)6 (0.3)40 (0.4)26 (0.3)55 (0.4)32 (0.3)
Penicillins (J01CA, CE)551 (19.3)540 (23.7)1559 (16.0)1572 (19.0)2110 (16.8)2112 (20.0)
Combinations of penicillins, including beta-lactamase inhibitors (J01CR)37 (1.3)35 (1.5)269 (2.8)246 (3.0)306 (2.4)281 (2.7)
First-generation cephalosporins (J01DB)27 (0.9)13 (0.6)44 (0.5)46 (0.6)71 (0.6)59 (0.6)
Second-generation cephalosporins (J01DC)29 (1.0)27 (1.2)82 (0.8)82 (1.0)111 (0.9)109 (1.0)
Third-generation cephalosporins (J01DD)1426 (50.1)1032 (45.2)4714 (48.4)3776 (45.7)6140 (48.8)4808 (45.6)
Other beta-lactams (J01DE, DF, DH)39 (1.4)26 (1.1)180 (1.1)147 (1.8)219 (1.7)173 (1.6)
Combinations of sulfonamides and trimethoprim, incl. Derivatives (J01EE)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (0.0)1 (0.0)2 (0.0)1 (0.0)
Macrolides (J01FA10)567 (19.9)472 (20.7)2272 (23.4)1880 (22.7)2839 (22.6)2352 (22.3)
Fluoroquinolones (J01MA)117 (4.1)100 (4.4)457 (4.7)385 (4.7)574 (4.6)485 (4.6)
Aminoglycosides (J01GA, GB)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Glycopeptide antibacterials (J01XA)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Other antibacterials (J01XB-XX)41 (1.4)32 (1.4)111 (1.1)106 (1.3)152 (1.2)138 (1.3)
Total284922839730826712,57910,550
  1. aThe values are based on the information from the participating facilities claiming the antimicrobial stewardship fee or not
  2. bThe values show the total frequency of prescription (proportion)
  3. Abbreviations: AS antimicrobial stewardship