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Table 1 Descriptive statistics by smoking status

From: Smoking is associated with a higher risk of unplanned medical visits among adult patients with diabetes, using retrospective electronic medical record data from 2014 to 2016

 StateNever-Smoker N = 28,543Former Smoker N = 24,550Current Smoker N = 9056p
Any unplanned visitsMN48.1% (4834)53.7% (5223)58.2% (2118)<.001
ND55.7% (5586)59.9% (4854)59.8% (1770)<.001
SD51.8% (4388)57.0% (3823)59.6% (1463)<.001
Total51.9% (14808)56.6% (13900)59.1% (5351)<.001
Number of unplanned visitsMN2 (1–5)3 (1–6)3 (2–7)<.001
ND2 (1–5)3 (1–6)3 (2–7)<.001
SD2 (1–4)3 (1–5)3 (1–6)<.001
Total2 (1–5)3 (1–6)3 (2–7)<.001
BMIMN32.1 (28.0–37.1)32.5 (28.4–37.3)31.6 (27.1–36.8)<.001
ND32.1 (28.1–37.2)32.4 (28.3–37.3)31.5 (27.2–36.6)<.001
SD32.0 (27.8–37.3)32.3 (28.2–37.2)31.2 (26.8–36.5)<.001
Total32.1 (28.0–37.2)32.4 (28.3–37.3)31.5 (27.1–36.7)<.001
Non-Hispanic whiteMN91.0% (9017)88.6% (8510)69.8% (2507)<.001
ND90.4% (8925)90.1% (7206)81.3% (2375)<.001
SD92.0%(7753)88.2% (5883)74.2% (1810)<.001
Total91.1% (25695)89.0 (21599)74.8 (6692)<.001
MaleMN43.6% (4379)62.8% (6109)53.2% (1938)<.001
ND45.5% (4558)62.7% (5085)55.7% (1649)<.001
SD44.9% (3805)60.4% (4049)52.3% (1282)<.001
Total44.6% (12742)62.1% (15243)53.8% (4869)<.001
AgeMN67 (56–78)70 (61–78)57 (46–65)<.001
ND64 (53–76)68 (59–77)56 (46–64)<.001
SD64 (53–76)68 (59–77)56 (46–64)<.001
Total65 (54–77)69 (60–77)56 (46–65)<.001
Alcohol UseMN34.8% (3382)41.8% (3971)39.7% (1396)<.001
ND38.4% (3735)42.7% (3382)45.5% (1311)<.001
SD37.5% (3139)41.1% (2730)43.8% (1060)<.001
Total36.8% (10,256)41.9% (10,083)42.7% (3767)<.001
  1. Note: Categorical variables are presented as % (N) and numeric variables are presented as median (interquartile range). Significant differences by smoking status were tested with chi-square tests for categorical variables and Kruskal-Wallis rank sum tests for numeric variables. MN Minnesota. ND North Dakota. SD South Dakota. BMI body mass index