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Table 2 Categorisation of staff descriptions of what happened during the 283 incidents

From: Violence and aggression in psychiatric inpatient care in Sweden: a critical incident technique analysis of staff descriptions

Subcategory (number of descriptions)CategoryMain area
Aggression against property (45)Material damageDetails of violent and aggressive acts and situations
Verbal threats/provocation/aggression (89)Violent patient acts towards staff
Physical violence (58)
Serious assault (50)
Anxious/aggressive/disruptive patient (38)
Death threats, including against family (34)
Threats with/possession of any object/weapon (32)
Sexual harassment (4)
Taking hostages (3)
Threats/violence against co-patients/relatives (21)Violent acts towards others than staff
Self-harm/suicide attempt (15)
Staff aggression/violence (3)
Active defence/intervention (70)Ways the staff respondedWays in which staff dealt with aggressive situations and the eventual outcome
Alarm/call for help (56)
Call for police/fire brigade (31)
Passive defence/de-escalation (30)
Patient discharged from the ward (1)
Mechanical restraint (69)Ways in which the incident ended
Delimiting/supervising (46)
Calming down of patient/ebbing of situation (42)
Removal from the ward (35)
Enforced medication (31)
Anaesthetising/rapid tranquillisation of the patient (5)
Abscondment of patient (4)
  1. The figures in parentheses indicate the number of descriptions