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Table 2 Characteristics of identified RAI-HC quality indicators

From: Home care quality indicators based on the Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (RAI-HC): a systematic review

QIMeasure levelaTypebQI set affiliationcFace validitydInterrater reliabilitye
interRAI 1stSwiss RAI-HCinterRAI 2ndinterRAI 1stSwiss RAI-HCinterRAI 2ndSwiss RAI-HC
ADLOI CA ≥ 0.60
ADL declineOI    B 
ADL improvementOI    B 
IADLOI   A ≥ 0.60
IADL declineOI    B 
IADL improvementOI    B 
Rehabilitation potential and no therapiesPP() CA N/A
Decline independencyOP   A N/A
Difficulties in communicationOI CA N/A
Communication declineOI    B 
Communication improvementOI    B 
Bladder incontinenceOI CD ≥ 0.60
Bladder declineOI    B 
Bladder improvementOI    B 
Bowel incontinenceOI ()  D ≥ 0.60
ObstipationOI ()  A ≥ 0.60
Skin ulcerOI CA < 0.40
Mouth problemsOP   A 0.40–0.59
Cognitive functionOI CD 0.40–0.59
Cognitive declineOI    B 
Cognitive improvementOI    B 
DeliriumOP() CA N/A
Negative moodOP CA < 0.40
Mood declineOI    B 
Mood improvementOI    B 
Negative mood without interventionOP ()  A < 0.40
Social isolation with distressOPCAB0.40–0.59
Does not go out but used toOP    B 
Continued caregiver distressOP  AB< 0.40
FallsOPCDB≥ 0.60
Neglect or abuseOP CA N/A
InjuriesOP C B 
Hospital, ED, emergent careOP C B 
Daily severe painOPCAB0.40–0.59
Inadequate pain controlOPCAB< 0.40
Pain improvementOI    B 
DehydrationOP CA 0.40–0.59
Weight lossOPCABN/A
Weight change (undesired)OI ()  D N/A
Weight change (unfavourable)OI ()  D N/A
Inadequate mealsOP  C   
Difficulty in locomotion and no assistive deviceOP  C   
Impaired locomotion in homeOI CA ≥ 0.60
No medication review by MDPP CA N/A
Inconsistent drug intakeOP ()  A N/A
HearingOP ()  A < 0.40
EyesightOP ()  D N/A
No flu vaccinationPP C B 
  1. Abbreviations: ADL Activities of daily living, ED Emergency department, IADL Instrumental activities of daily living, MD Medical doctor, QI Quality indicator, RAI-HC Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care
  2. a O = Outcome, P = Process, classified by authors
  3. b I = Incidence-based measure (measures changes in a client’s health status from one time point to another), P = Prevalence-based measure (measures client's health status at a single point in time)
  4. c interRAI 1st = interRAI's 1st generation QI set by Hirdes et al. [37], Swiss RAI-HC = Swiss RAI-HC QI set by Burla et al. [29], interRAI 2nd = interRAI's 2nd generation QI set by Morris et al. [30], = part of the QI set, () = part of the QI set but not core set (only for Swiss QIs)
  5. d Face validity was assessed for all three QI sets:
  6. A = Face validity assessed with nominal group technique and rated as appropriate
  7. B = Face validity assessed with unstructured consensus process (approved by 70% of experts) and rated as appropriate
  8. C = Rating process of face validity not described but rated as appropriate
  9. D = Face validity assessed with nominal group technique and rated as inappropriate
  10. e Interrater reliability was tested by Burla et al. [29] for 18 Swiss RAI-HC QIs, values indicate kappa/yules values, N/A = not applicable: interrater reliability not tested due to small sample size. Kappa/yules values < 0.40 were interpreted as insufficient reliability