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Table 5 Relative risk of experiencing a harmful hospitalization, stratified by hospital language*

From: The impact of hospital language on the rate of in-hospital harm. A retrospective cohort study of home care recipients in Ontario, Canada

 Model 1: AnglophonesModel 2: FrancophonesModel 3: Allophones
English-speaking HospitalBilingual HospitalEnglish-speaking HospitalBilingual HospitalEnglish-speaking HospitalBilingual Hospital
Unadjusted Relative Risk (95% CI)1.0 (ref)1.17 (1.11–1.23)1.0 (ref)0.88 (0.77–0.99)1.0 (ref)1.41 (1.19–1.67)
Adjusted Relative Risk (95% CI)†1.0 (ref)0.89 (0.69–1.15)1.0 (ref)0.75 (0.49–1.13)1.0 (ref)0.98 (0.82–1.17)
  1. * Bold values denote significance at the 0.05 level
  2. † Adjusted for age at admission, sex, marital status, education, neighbourhood-level income quintile, urban/rural residence, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale, Cognitive Performance Scale, academic institution (yes/no), emergency department at hospital (yes/no), urban/rural hospital, number of ICU beds, number of medical beds, number of obstetric beds, number of pediatric beds, number of surgical beds