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Table 3 Characteristics of participants before and after propensity score matching

From: Number of consulting medical institutions and risk of polypharmacy in community-dwelling older people under a healthcare system with free access: a cross-sectional study in Japan

 Before propensity score matchingAfter propensity score matching
1 consulting medical institution (N = 516)≥2 consulting medical institutions (N = 477)P value1 consulting medical institution (N = 307)≥2 consulting medical institutions (N = 307)P value
Age (year old, mean ± SD)74.5 ± 6.775.8 ± 6.20.00374.9 ± 7.175.0 ± 5.90.956
Sex (men), n (%)276 (53.5)246 (51.6)0.546154 (50.2)159 (51.8)0.686
Household economy, n (%)
 Very poor26 (5.0)31 (6.5)0.47915 (4.9)17 (5.5)0.594
 Poor92 (17.8)106 (22.2) 63 (20.5)67 (21.8) 
 Normal342 (66.3)291 (61.0) 208 (67.8)193 (62.9) 
 Rich35 (6.8)30 (6.3) 16 (5.2)25 (8.1) 
 Very rich8 (1.6)7 (1.5) 5 (1.6)5 (1.6) 
 Not answereda13 (2.5)12 (2.5) 00 
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension284 (55.0)275 (57.7)0.407168 (54.7)165 (53.8)0.808
 Stroke11 (2.1)22 (4.6)0.0299 (2.9)7 (2.3)0.612
 Heart disease60 (11.6)72 (15.1)0.10842 (13.7)38 (12.4)0.632
 Diabetes mellitus96 (18.6)83 (17.4)0.62252 (16.9)59 (19.2)0.463
 Dyslipidemia84 (16.3)73 (15.3)0.67451 (16.6)47 (15.3)0.659
 Respiratory disorder23 (4.5)39 (8.2)0.01621 (6.8)15 (4.9)0.303
 Gastrointestinal disorder29 (5.6)55 (11.5)0.00127 (8.8)23 (7.5)0.555
 Renal urologic disorder34 (6.6)72 (15.1)<0.00128 (9.1)29 (9.5)0.889
 Musculoskeletal disorder34 (6.6)69 (14.5)<0.00131 (10.1)26 (8.5)0.487
 Injury7 (1.4)14 (2.9)0.0847 (2.3)6 (2.0)0.779
 Malignancy26 (5.0)23 (4.8)0.87513 (4.2)18 (5.9)0.357
 Hematologic disease7 (1.4)11 (2.3)0.2634 (1.3)5 (1.6)0.737
 Depression3 (0.6)8 (1.7)0.0993 (1.0)2 (0.7)0.653
 Dementia6 (1.2)5 (1.1)0.8634 (1.3)2 (0.7)0.412
 Parkinson’s disease01 (0.2)0.29800 
 Ear disorder24 (4.7)30 (6.3)0.25514 (4.6)11 (3.6)0.540
 Other52 (10.1)56 (11.7)0.40136 (11.7)34 (11.1)0.800
The number of comorbidities, n (%)
  1300 (58.1)147 (30.8)<0.001142 (46.3)141 (45.9)0.422
  2150 (29.1)175 (36.7) 111 (36.2)117 (38.1) 
  341 (8.0)92 (19.3) 32 (10.4)37 (12.1) 
  417 (3.3)50 (10.5) 14 (4.6)9 (2.9) 
 ≥58 (1.6)13 (2.7) 8 (2.6)3 (1.0) 
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. a25 people with missing data were not included in the propensity-score-matched analysis