Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Number of consulting medical institutions and risk of polypharmacy in community-dwelling older people under a healthcare system with free access: a cross-sectional study in Japan

FactorsN = 993
n (%)
Age (year old, mean ± SD)75.1 ± 6.5
Sex (men)522 (52.6)
The number of consulting medical institutions
  1516 (52.0)
 2332 (33.4)
 ≥3145 (14.6)
Household economy
 Very poor57 (5.9)
 Poor198 (20.5)
 Normal633 (65.4)
 Rich65 (6.7)
 Very rich15 (1.6)
 Not answered25 (2.5)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension559 (56.3)
 Stroke33 (3.3)
 Heart disease132 (13.3)
 Diabetes mellitus179 (18.0)
 Dyslipidemia157 (15.8)
 Respiratory disorder62 (6.2)
 Gastrointestinal disorder84 (8.5)
 Renal urologic disorder106 (10.7)
 Musculoskeletal disorder103 (10.4)
 Injury21 (2.1)
 Malignancy49 (4.9)
 Hematologic disease18 (1.8)
 Depression11 (1.1)
 Dementia11 (1.1)
 Parkinson’s disease1 (0.1)
 Ear disorder54 (5.4)
 Other108 (10.9)
Number of comorbidities
  1447 (45.0)
  2325 (32.7)
  3133 (13.4)
  467 (6.7)
 ≥521 (2.1)
  1. SD standard deviation