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Table 4 Logistic regression analyses of variables associated with being dispensed a benzodiazepine or z-hypnotic, and a gabapentinoid

From: Dispensations of benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics, and gabapentinoids to patients receiving opioid agonist therapy; a prospective cohort study in Norway from 2013 to 2017

a)
2017Dispensed a benzodiazepine or z-hypnotic
N = 3764
cORp-valueaOR (95% CI)p-value
Age
 - ≤ 251.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.) 
 - 26-351.0.800.9 (0.6–1.4).76
 - 36-451.0.851.0 (0.7–1.5).94
 - 46-551.6.021.7 (1.1–2.5).05
 - ≥ 561.9< .011.2 (1.1–1.3).01
Gender
 - Men1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.) 
 - Women1.2< .011.2 (1.1–1.3)< .01
The number of dispensations of OAT opioids
 - ≥ 521.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.) 
 - 13-511.3< .011.2 (1.1–1.5).01
 - 7-121.1.271.0 (0.9–1.3).73
 - 1-61.3.031.1 (0.9–1.4).23
OAT opioidsa
 - Buprenorphine (incl. combinations)1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.) 
 - Methadone (incl. Levomethadone)1.4< .011.3 (1.2–1.4)< .01
Dispensed a non-OAT opioid3.5< .013.0 (2.6–3.5)< .01
Dispensed a gabapentinoid3.0< .012.5 (2.1–3.0)< .01
b)
2017Dispensed a gabapentinoid
N = 845
cORp-valueaOR (95% CI)p-value
Age
 - ≤ 251.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.) 
 - 26-351.1.711.2 (0.6–2.2).60
 - 36-451.0.901.1 (0.6–2.0).79
 - 46-551.0.990.9 (0.5–1.7).75
 - ≥ 561.0.950.8 (0.4–1.5).45
Gender
 - Men1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.) 
 - Women1.3< .011.1 (1.0–1.3).16
The number of dispensations of OAT opioids
 - ≥ 521.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.) 
 - 13-510.9.620.9 (0.7–1.1).31
 - 7-121.0.950.9 (0.7–1.3).72
 - 1-61.5.011.2 (0.9–1.7).26
OAT opioidsa
 - Buprenorphine (incl. combinations)1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.) 
 - Methadone (incl. Levomethadone)1.1.461.1 (0.9–1.3).41
Dispensed a non-OAT opioid3.7< .013.0 (2.5–3.5)<.01
Dispensed a benzodiazepine or z-hypnotic3.0< .012.5 (2.1–3.0)<.01
  1. cOR crude odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, and OAT Opioid agonist therapy
  2. aThe last type of dispensed OAT opioid
  3. Table a) and b) display unadjusted (crude) and adjusted odds ratio for all independent variables of patients who were dispensed at least a benzodiazepine or z-hypnotic, and a gabapentinoid, respectively, in 2017 in Norway. a) Being dispensed at least a benzodiazepine or z-hypnotic was defined as a dependent variable, and age, gender, ‘the number of dispensations of OAT opioids,’ ‘OAT opioids,’ ‘dispensed a non-OAT opioid,’ and ‘dispensed a gabapentinoid’ were defined as categorical and independent variables. b) Being dispensed a gabapentinoid was defined as a dependent variable, and age, gender, ‘the number of dispensations of OAT opioids,’ ‘OAT opioids,’ ‘dispensed a non-OAT opioid,’ and ‘dispensed a benzodiazepine or z-hypnotic’ were defined as categorical and independent variables