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Table 1 The definitions and data sources of the independent variables and outcomes

From: The association between the supply and utilization of community-based primary care and child health in a context of hospital-oriented healthcare system in urban districts of Guangdong, China: a panel dataset, 2014–2016

 VariableDefinitionData source
The supply and utilization of primary careNumber of PCPs per 10,000 populationThe number of physicians working in primary care institutions per 10,000 population. It indicated the supply of primary care in the district.Health Statistical Bureau of Guangdong Province
Visit proportion to primary care, %The number of visits to primary care institutions as a percentage of visits to all district healthcare institutions. It showed the utilization of primary care services by people in the district.
Structural indicators of healthcare systemNumber of physicians working in district-level hospitals per 10,000 populationThe number of physicians working in district-level (secondary) hospitals per 10,000 population. It indicated the supply of care in district-level hospitals.
Whether there were tertiary hospitals in the districtA dummy variable, coded with ‘1’ indicating one or more tertiary hospitals and ‘0’ indicating no tertiary hospital in the district.
ConfoundersGDP per capita (10,000 Yuan/USD 1586.34)Division of gross domestic product (GDP) by the number of population in the district. It was a proxy for economic development in the district.Statistical Yearbooks of 12 prefectural-level cities of Guangdong province
Population density (1000 per square kilometer)Population per square kilometer living in the district. It was a proxy for environment in the district.
Children aged between 0 to 6, %The number of children aged between 0 and 6 as a percentage of the whole population in the district. It was a proxy for demographics in the district.Annual national report of maternal and child health
Pregnant women with rural registration, %Pregnant women with rural registration as a percentage of all the pregnant women in the district. It was a proxy for demographics in the district.
Child health indicatorsU5MR (among the entire population/the interprovincial migrants)The number of deaths of children under the age of five per 1000 live births among the entire population/the interprovincial migrants in the district.Annual national report of maternal and child health
IMR (among the entire population/the interprovincial migrants)The number of deaths of infants under the age of one per 1000 live births among the entire population/the interprovincial migrants in the district.
NMR (among the entire population/the interprovincial migrants)The number of deaths of infants during the first 28 days of life per 1000 lives births among the entire population/the interprovincial migrants in the district.