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Table 3 Multilevel regression models for cost-related unmet need for healthcare

From: Cost–related unmet need for healthcare services in Kenya

FactorsCategoriesModel 1: OutpatientModel 2: InpatientModel 3: Overall
OR[95% CI]OR[95% CI]OR[95% CI]
Predisposing factors
GenderMale [RC]      
Female1.015(0.88–1.17)1.115(0.82–1.52)1.019(0.89–1.16)
Age group HHBelow 25 years [RC]      
25–40 years1.260(0.85–1.87)1.452(0.62–3.39)1.332(0.94–1.89)
40+ years1.926***(1.31–2.84)1.175(0.50–2.76)1.793**(1.26–2.55)
Education level of HH headNone [RC]      
Primary1.057(0.66–1.69)0.364(0.11–1.21)0.956(0.62–1.46)
Secondary0.772(0.47–1.27)0.229**(0.06–0.79)0.669(0.43–1.05)
Tertiary0.488**(0.26–0.91)0.340(0.08–1.31)0.534*(0.31–0.92)
Employment statusNot employed [RC]      
Employed1.009(0.83–1.22)0.668**(0.45–0.98)0.931(0.79–1.10)
Need Factors
Type of serviceOutpatient [RC]      
InpatientNA NA 1.950***(1.68–2.26)
Self-rated healthPoor [RC]      
Satisfactory1.108(0.89–1.37)0.613**(0.41–0.92)0.942(0.79–1.13)
Good0.661***(0.54–0.81)0.348***(0.24–0.51)0.567***(0.48–0.67)
Chronic IllnessNo Chronic Illness [RC]      
Chronic illness1.163(0.99–1.37)0.822(0.59–1.15)1.067(0.92–1.23)
Enabling factors
Insurance statusNot insured [RC]      
Insured0.562***(0.43–0.74)0.346***(0.22–0.55)0.505***(0.40–0.64)
Household size1–3 Small [RC]      
4–6 Medium0.698***(0.59–0.82)0.677**(0.46–0.99)0.693***(0.60–0.80)
7+ Large0.647***(0.54–0.77)1.192(0.80–1.77)0.717***(0.61–0.84)
ResidenceRural [RC]      
Urban1.280**(1.10–1.49)1.358(0.95–1.94)1.259**(1.09–1.45)
Wealth IndexPoorest [RC]      
Second0.826*(0.69–0.98)0.921(0.63–1.30)0.845*(0.72–0.99)
Middle0.643***(0.53–0.78)0.558**(0.36–0.86)0.632***(0.53–0.75)
Fourth0.438***(0.34–0.56)0.532**(0.33–0.85)0.470***(0.38–0.58)
Richest0.371***(0.26–0.53)0.131***(0.05–0.32)0.314***(0.23–0.44)
_cons0.040***(0.02–0.08)0.372(0.08–1.75)0.055***(0.03–0.10)
Random effects/lnsig2u [County variance]−1.113(−1.62--0.61)0.613(−0.01–1.24)−1.074(−1.57- –0.57)
sigma_u [Residual variance]0.573(0.45–0.74)1.359(0.99–1.85)0.585(0.45–0.75)
Rho [Intraclass correlation (ICC)]0.091(0.06–0.14)0.359(0.23–0.51)0.094(0.06–0.15)
Log likelihood − 4513.35 − 818.16 −5426.35
Wald chi2(18) 354.35 129.25 443.84
No. of observations 36,783 4863 41,646
No. of groups 44 44 44
  1. P < 0.05*, 0.01** and 0.001***; RC Reference Category, HH Household, NA Not Applicable, OR Odds Ratio