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Table 4 Multilevel linear regression of the utilization of CPG on antimicrobial

From: Utilization of clinical practice guideline on antimicrobial in China: an exploratory survey on multilevel determinants

  Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Intercept 3.957*** 1.796 2.306* 2.913**
Individual level
Domain: Physician belief
  Attitude   − 0.017 (− 0.087~0.053) −0.010 (− 0.080~0.061) −0.019 (− 0.090~0.052)
  Subjective norm   0.155*** (0.089~0.221) 0.151*** (0.087~0.214) 0.158*** (0.095~0.221)
  Perceived risk   −0.048** (− 0.085~ − 0.012) −0.038* (− 0.074~ − 0.001) − 0.045** (− 0.082~ − 0.009)
  Behavioral intention   0.304*** (0.226~0.382) 0.297*** (0.221~0.373) 0.297*** (0.221~0.372)
Domain: CPG traits
  Relative advantage   0.05 (− 0.022~0.121) 0.046 (−0.169~0.109) 0.038 (− 0.025~0.101)
  Ease of use   0.127*** (0.067~0.188) 0.124*** (0.066~0.182) 0.124*** (0.067~0.182)
Domain: Hospital practice
  Top management support   0.167*** (0.100~0.234) 0.165*** (0.098~0.233) 0.159*** (0.091~0.226)
  Organization & Implementation   0.145*** (0.079~0.212) 0.166*** (0.103~0.229) 0.161*** (0.098~0.223)
Demographic characteristics
  Gender (Ref: Female)     
  Male    0.011 (−0.053~0.074) 0.030 (−0.034~0.094)
 Age (Ref: ≥45 years old)
   < 35 years old    −0.002 (− 0.198~0.193) 0.025 (− 0.169~0.220)
  35~44 years old    0.065 (−0.107~0.238) 0.087 (− 0.085~0.259)
 Education (Ref: Doctor)
  Junior college or below    0.114 (−0.142~0.371) 0.069 (−0.193~0.332)
  Bachelor    0.041 (−0.069~0.151) 0.016 (−0.098~0.130)
  Master    0.027 (−0.077~0.130) 0.018 (−0.084~0.120)
 Professional Title (Ref: Senior)
  Junior    −0.464 (− 0.183~0.090) −0.051 (− 0.186~0.085)
  Intermediate    −0.006 (− 0.104~0.091) −0.017 (− 0.113~0.080)
 Department (Ref: Other)
  Internal medicine    −0.035 (− 0.139~0.069) −0.013 (− 0.115~0.090)
  Surgery    −0.039 (− 0.145~0.066) −0.019 (− 0.124~0.086)
  Gynecology and obstetrics    0.002 (−0.131~0.136) 0.022 (−0.111~0.155)
  Ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology    −0.171* (− 0.303~ − 0.038) −0.160* (− 0.292~ − 0.029)
 Years in Practice (Ref: > 20 years)
   < 5 years    − 0.263 (− 0.601~0.075) −0.284 (− 0.620~0.052)
  5~10 years    −0.275 (− 0.602~0.051) −0.289 (− 0.614~0.035)
  11~15 years    −0.294 (− 0.608~0.019) −0.303 (− 0.615~0.008)
  16~20 years    −0.181 (− 0.456~0.095) −0.173 (− 0.447~0.101)
Organizational level
 Hospital rank (Ref: Secondary)
  Tertiary     0.003 (−0.084~0.089)
 Region (Ref: Western)
  Eastern     −0.141*** (− 0.223~ − 0.060)
  Central     −0.068 (− 0.149~0.013)
 Random effectsa
  Organization, variance 0.364 (0.018)*** 0.162 (0.008)*** 0.166 (0.008)*** 0.164 (0.008)***
  -2 Log likelihood 1515.258 930.912 940.728 941.152
  1. Notes: Presented by t value or odds ratio and its 95% confidence intervals; * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001;
  2. a Estimate and SE