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Table 5 Barriers identified within the studies, arranged within the Access dimensions

From: Access to appropriate health care for non-English speaking migrant families with a newborn/young child: a systematic scoping literature review

Access dimensionBarrier (citation)Perspective of study
 Migrant/ refugee womenMigrant/ refugee menHealth professionalsVoluntary workers
 Ability to perceiveWomen unfamiliar with the concept of maternity care [17, 18]  
Perceived inappropriate referrals [19]   
Confusion about how to navigate ‘systems of care’ [20, 21]   
Previous negative experiences with health care encounters [21]   
 Ability to seekStress and competing priorities [18]   
Language difficulties [18,19,20]   
Family conflicts [18]   
Difficulty making appointments [19,20,21]   
 Ability to reachTransport [18, 19]   
Loneliness/social isolation/lack of support [18,19,20]   
Childcare difficulties [19]   
Dependence on husband (for transport, interpretation and/or finances) [19, 23] 
 Ability to payUnstable income or lack of suitable work or employment opportunities [18, 22] 
Prioritising children’s education [18]   
 Ability to engageN/A    
 ApproachabilityLack of information and resources available for women and families [18, 23] 
Outdated professional lists [19]   
 AcceptabilityLack of cultural sensitivity/understanding of different cultural practices [17,18,19, 22, 23]
Negative attitudes [17]   
 Availability and accommodationInterpreter services [18, 21, 23] 
Waiting lists [21]   
Lack of flexibility [19]   
Complicated phone systems [19]   
 AffordabilityConfusion about cost of services/eligibility [21]   
 AppropriatenessPoor communication [17]   
Stress of caring role [17]   
Lack of continuity [17]   
Transience of refugee and asylum-seeking women [17]   
Lack of information and training provided to health professionals [17]   
Challenges of multi-agency practice [17]   
Disagreements about patient management [20]   
Short consultations or lack of continuity [23]