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Table 3 Estimation results for regional variation in GP use

From: What explains the regional variation in the use of general practitioners in Australia?

VariablesDependent variable: Number of GP visits per capita by SLAs
OLSQuantile 0.25Quantile 0.5Quantile 0.75
(1)(2)(3)(4)
Age distribution (base is age 30–44, %)
 Age 0–90.001(0.029)0.004(0.039)− 0.008(0.035)−0.021(0.036)
 Age 10–29− 0.002(0.015)− 0.032(0.021)− 0.012(0.021)− 0.010(0.020)
 Age 45–64− 0.009(0.016)−0.018(0.018)0.006(0.023)0.000(0.021)
 Age 65 and above0.071**(0.031)0.029(0.033)0.072*(0.040)0.076*(0.044)
Share of male0.023(0.027)−0.022(0.037)0.013(0.035)0.010(0.030)
ASGC remoteness index (base is major city)
 Inner regional areas−0.505***(0.164)−0.735***(0.203)−0.503***(0.186)−0.109(0.239)
 Rural and remote areas−0.610***(0.231)−0.944***(0.269)−0.534*(0.273)−0.012(0.349)
SEIFA-IRSD index (base is above 75th percentile - the most advantaged)
 25th percentile and below (the most disadvantaged)−0.119(0.202)−0.061(0.246)0.054(0.232)0.052(0.298)
 25th–50th percentile−0.139(0.157)−0.203(0.167)−0.023(0.182)0.095(0.235)
 50th–75th percentile0.063(0.103)0.059(0.121)0.155(0.103)0.263*(0.149)
Proportion of Aboriginal population0.007(0.013)−0.015(0.019)0.003(0.020)0.026(0.019)
Proportion of concession card holders0.059***(0.012)0.065***(0.017)0.047**(0.018)0.067***(0.019)
Share of fair or poor self-assessed health population−0.026(0.020)− 0.010(0.023)− 0.022(0.031)− 0.059*(0.036)
Chronic disease and conditions (%)
 Type 2 diabetes−0.576***(0.158)−0.509***(0.179)−0.574***(0.219)−0.442*(0.239)
 Respiratory system disease−0.011(0.013)−0.028*(0.017)−0.023(0.017)−0.011(0.018)
 Circulatory system disease0.003(0.021)0.019(0.027)−0.010(0.025)−0.048(0.029)
Proportion of people with profound or severe disability living in the community0.318***(0.083)0.218**(0.094)0.305***(0.105)0.287**(0.115)
Proportion of people with high/very high level of psychological distress0.108*(0.055)0.075(0.061)0.105(0.072)0.093(0.078)
Health-related factors (%)
 Current smokers−0.054**(0.026)−0.032(0.032)−0.045(0.030)−0.058(0.040)
 Alcohol consumption at levels of high risk to health−0.015(0.021)0.020(0.031)−0.006(0.027)−0.052*(0.031)
 Physical inactivity0.010(0.012)0.020(0.015)0.016(0.016)0.008(0.016)
 Obese persons0.099***(0.027)0.041(0.035)0.066**(0.033)0.134***(0.037)
Access to services (%)
 Delayed purchasing prescribed medication because could not afford it−0.024(0.025)−0.019(0.029)0.007(0.028)−0.028(0.032)
 Have difficulty in accessing service−0.060***(0.018)−0.050**(0.022)−0.072***(0.021)−0.087***(0.027)
 Have difficulty in transportation−0.142*(0.076)−0.124(0.093)−0.121(0.091)−0.080(0.104)
Physician density
 Number of specialists per 1000 population−0.057***(0.013)−0.051**(0.024)−0.066***(0.021)−0.072***(0.025)
 Number of GPs per 1000 population0.164*(0.087)0.201**(0.097)0.246**(0.105)0.333**(0.154)
Number of EDs by SLAs (base is no EDs)
 1–2 EDs0.100(0.071)0.112(0.081)0.121(0.088)0.153*(0.090)
 3 or more EDs0.080(0.117)−0.034(0.144)0.070(0.175)0.045(0.172)
Constant3.866**(1.916)7.273**(2.893)5.071**(2.567)6.001***(2.164)
Number of observations756756756756
R squared (Pseudo R squared)0.5400.3640.3330.343
  1. Notes: Numbers in parentheses are white robust standard errors. Significant level * p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01