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Table 5 Relationship between the working environment and patient safety culture scores in physiciansa

From: Relationship of patient safety culture with factors influencing working environment such as working hours, the number of night shifts, and the number of days off among healthcare workers in Japan: a cross-sectional study

Response variables Explanatory variablesAICC
Working hours in a weekNumber of night shifts in a monthNumber of days off in a month
< 60≥6001–4≥5≥7≤6
(n)(204)(162)(86)(225)(55)(110)(253)
Teamwork within unitsCoefficient0.00−0.08b0.00−0.11c− 0.070.00− 0.05140
Supervisor or manager expectations and actions promoting patient safety0.000.010.000.01−0.030.000.03203
Organizational learning-continuous improvement0.00−0.020.00−0.05−0.080.00−0.02259
Management support for patient safety0.00−0.13c0.00−0.04−0.060.00−0.07301
Overall perceptions of patient safety0.00−0.040.00−0.04−0.030.00−0.06244
Feedback and communication about error0.00−0.070.00−0.15c−0.23c0.00−0.05339
Communication openness0.00−0.050.00−0.09−0.130.00−0.01316
Frequency of events reported0.000.020.00−0.14b−0.23c0.00−0.05377
Teamwork across units0.000.020.00−0.03−0.030.000.02301
Staffing0.00−0.060.000.070.050.00−0.12c137
Handoffs and transitions0.00− 0.050.000.080.020.00−0.06265
Nonpunitive response to errors0.00−0.020.000.02−0.020.00−0.03309
Respondents who rated patient safety grade as “very good” or “good” (vs. others)aOR1.000.55b1.000.570.40b1.000.751464
Respondents who reported one or more events (vs. none)1.001.451.001.381.761.001.441500
  1. The number of physicians who worked less than 40 h or had 10 days off or more was few, and working hours and the number of days off were divided into two groups
  2. AICC Akaike’s Information Criterion Correction, aOR adjusted Odds Ratio, (n) Number of respondents
  3. aResults of the generalized linear mixed model using working hours, the number of night shifts, and the number of days off as explanatory variables
  4. bP < 0.05
  5. cP < 0.01