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Table 3 Relationship between the working environment and patient safety culture scores in all respondentsa

From: Relationship of patient safety culture with factors influencing working environment such as working hours, the number of night shifts, and the number of days off among healthcare workers in Japan: a cross-sectional study

Response variables Explanatory variablesAICC
Working hours in a weekNumber of night shifts in a monthNumber of days off in a month
< 4040–60≥6001–4≥5≥107–9< 7
Teamwork within unitsCoefficient0.00−0.04b− 0.08c0.00−0.03c−0.06c0.00−0.04c−0.10c1738
Supervisor or manager expectations and actions promoting patient safety0.00−0.02c−−0.030.00−0.03b−0.06b1345
Organizational learning-continuous improvement0.00− 0.03c0.000.00−0.04c−0.08c0.00−0.03c−0.022286
Management support for patient safety0.00−0.03c−0.11c0.00−0.01−0.060.00−0.05b−0.08b2640
Overall perceptions of patient safety0.00−0.04b−0.09b0.00−0.04c−0.07c0.00−0.01−0.032268
Feedback and communication about error0.00−0.01− 0.05c0.00−0.04c−0.05b0.00− 0.04b−0.07b2599
Communication openness0.00−0.02− 0.030.00− 0.04c−0.07b0.00− 0.03c−0.07b2764
Frequency of events reported0.−0.02− 0.020.00−0.01−0.022903
Teamwork across units0.00−0.05b−0.05c0.00−0.01−0.030.00−0.04c−0.06c2404
Staffing0.00−0.05b−0.12 b0.000.02−0.04 b0.00−0.02−0.09b908
Handoffs and transitions0.00− 0.02− 0.08b0.−0.03−0.05c2282
Nonpunitive response to errors0.00−0.04c− 0.08b0.00−0.01−0.08b0.00−0.01−0.08b2967
Respondents who rated patient safety grade as “very good” or “good” (vs. others)aOR1.000.73b0.56b1.000.880.76c1.001.021.0514,247
Respondents who reported one or more events (vs. none)1.001.33c1.291.001.72b2.66b1.000.960.9017,215
  1. AICC Akaike’s Information Criterion Correction, aOR: adjusted Odds Ratio, (n): Number of respondents
  2. aResults of the generalized linear mixed model using working hours, the number of night shifts, and the number of days off as explanatory variables
  3. bP < 0.01
  4. cP < 0.05