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Table 2 Multivariate random-effects logistic regression models of the association between caregiver sex and OVC HIV infection in Tanzania, 2017 (n = 39,578)

From: Understanding the association between caregiver sex and HIV infection among orphans and vulnerable children in Tanzania: learning from the USAID Kizazi Kipya project

VariableALL OVC (n = 39,578)OVC Age group
Age 0–4 years (n = 5,217)Age 5–9 years (n = 10,457)Age 10–14 years (n = 12,261)Age 15–19 years (n = 11,643)
Odds Ratio (OR)95% Confidence Interval (CI)Odds Ratio (OR)95% Confidence Interval (CI)Odds Ratio (OR)95% Confidence Interval (CI)Odds Ratio (OR)95% Confidence Interval (CI)Odds Ratio (OR)95% Confidence Interval (CI)
OVC's caregiver sex
 Female1.001.001.001.001.00
 Male**1.401.08—1.83**4.021.61—10.03**1.721.02—2.931.320.83—2.101.070.68—1.68
Caregiver marital status
 Married or living together1.001.001.001.001.00
 Divorced or separated1.050.74—1.502.220.78—6.311.520.76—3.041.090.59—2.02**0.510.26—0.99
 Never been married**1.631.04—2.572.540.63—10.272.030.82—5.011.870.83—4.201.560.71—3.44
 Widowed1.190.91—1.54**2.581.07—6.261.310.77—2.221.320.84—2.100.910.59—1.42
Family size***0.820.78—0.87***0.660.54—0.81**0.840.76—0.93***0.760.69—0.84***0.740.67—0.82
OVC sex
 Female1.001.001.001.001.00
 Male0.920.79—1.080.710.39--1.290.870.60—1.260.880.63—1.220.840.60—1.16
OVC age group (in years)
 0—41.00
 5—9**1.351.04—1.75
 10—14**1.441.11—1.86
 15—19**1.371.05—1.79
OVC Nutritional status (MUAC)
 Green (healthy)1.001.001.001.001.00
 Yellow (moderately malnourished)***11.037.40—16.44***13.243.43—51.17***11.234.44—28.42***32.5711.67—90.88***29.5210.02—87.02
 Red (severely malnourished)***12.714.36—37.06***147.256.91—3137.20.900.04—22.45**11.691.14—119.39***153.2213.39—1753.2
 Unknown1.230.99—1.521.570.72—3.410.970.60—1.571.200.79—1.801.160.78—1.71
OVC's caregiver HIV status
 Negative1.001.001.001.001.00
 Positive***29.2721.04—40.72***51.6511.07—240.9***67.6925.60—179.0***33.7415.24—74.67***13.947.34—26.45
 Undisclosed***3.292.43—4.472.500.90—7.01***4.102.07—8.14***5.252.87—9.57***3.472.03—5.95
Wealth Quintile
 Lowest (Q1)1.001.001.001.001.00
 Second0.840.58—1.220.610.20—1.831.230.61—2.490.630.33—1.230.740.38—1.44
 Middle1.090.78—1.521.940.73—5.141.100.56—2.131.130.63—2.010.900.50—1.61
 Fourth1.290.93—1.781.100.41—2.981.680.87—3.221.410.80—2.461.040.59—1.83
 Highest (Q5)**1.421.03—1.961.050.39—2.881.370.71—2.641.250.71—2.181.650.96—2.82
Education of the OVC's caregiver
 Never attended1.001.001.001.001.00
 Primary0.780.59—1.030.710.31—1.660.590.33—1.030.860.53—1.400.880.54—1.43
 Secondary or higher0.860.46—1.600.570.08—4.170.430.11—1.630.720.22—2.351.440.51—4.01
Household member(s) has health insurance card
 Yes1.001.001.001.001.00
 No***0.340.25—0.45**0.280.11—0.73***0.280.15—0.52***0.380.22—0.65***0.290.17—0.50
Place of residence
 Rural1.001.001.001.001.00
 Urban**0.710.55—0.91***0.160.06—0.43***0.380.22—0.650.810.53—1.26**1.591.04—2.44
Constant0.00170.0009-0.00350.00090.0001-0.01720.00070.0001-0.00450.0010.0002-0.00530.00280.0007-0.0113
rho (intraclass correlation coefficient)0.850.83-0.870.890.79-0.950.880.82-0.920.870.81-0.910.860.80-0.90
Model statisticsNumber of OVC = 39,578Number of OVC = 5,217Number of OVC = 10,457Number of OVC = 12,261Number of OVC = 11,643
Number of households = 20,082Number of households = 4,477Number of households = 8,165Number of households = 9,586Number of households = 9,011
OVC per household: min = 1, avg = 2, max = 9OVC per household: min = 1, avg = 1.2, max = 6OVC per household: min = 1, avg = 1.3, max = 7OVC per household: min = 1, avg = 1.3, max = 7OVC per household: min = 1, avg = 1.3, max = 6
  1. Statistical significance: ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.05