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Table 2 Multivariate random-effects logistic regression models of the association between caregiver sex and OVC HIV infection in Tanzania, 2017 (n = 39,578)

From: Understanding the association between caregiver sex and HIV infection among orphans and vulnerable children in Tanzania: learning from the USAID Kizazi Kipya project

Variable ALL OVC (n = 39,578) OVC Age group
Age 0–4 years (n = 5,217) Age 5–9 years (n = 10,457) Age 10–14 years (n = 12,261) Age 15–19 years (n = 11,643)
Odds Ratio (OR) 95% Confidence Interval (CI) Odds Ratio (OR) 95% Confidence Interval (CI) Odds Ratio (OR) 95% Confidence Interval (CI) Odds Ratio (OR) 95% Confidence Interval (CI) Odds Ratio (OR) 95% Confidence Interval (CI)
OVC's caregiver sex
 Female 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Male **1.40 1.08—1.83 **4.02 1.61—10.03 **1.72 1.02—2.93 1.32 0.83—2.10 1.07 0.68—1.68
Caregiver marital status
 Married or living together 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Divorced or separated 1.05 0.74—1.50 2.22 0.78—6.31 1.52 0.76—3.04 1.09 0.59—2.02 **0.51 0.26—0.99
 Never been married **1.63 1.04—2.57 2.54 0.63—10.27 2.03 0.82—5.01 1.87 0.83—4.20 1.56 0.71—3.44
 Widowed 1.19 0.91—1.54 **2.58 1.07—6.26 1.31 0.77—2.22 1.32 0.84—2.10 0.91 0.59—1.42
Family size ***0.82 0.78—0.87 ***0.66 0.54—0.81 **0.84 0.76—0.93 ***0.76 0.69—0.84 ***0.74 0.67—0.82
OVC sex
 Female 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Male 0.92 0.79—1.08 0.71 0.39--1.29 0.87 0.60—1.26 0.88 0.63—1.22 0.84 0.60—1.16
OVC age group (in years)
 0—4 1.00
 5—9 **1.35 1.04—1.75
 10—14 **1.44 1.11—1.86
 15—19 **1.37 1.05—1.79
OVC Nutritional status (MUAC)
 Green (healthy) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yellow (moderately malnourished) ***11.03 7.40—16.44 ***13.24 3.43—51.17 ***11.23 4.44—28.42 ***32.57 11.67—90.88 ***29.52 10.02—87.02
 Red (severely malnourished) ***12.71 4.36—37.06 ***147.25 6.91—3137.2 0.90 0.04—22.45 **11.69 1.14—119.39 ***153.22 13.39—1753.2
 Unknown 1.23 0.99—1.52 1.57 0.72—3.41 0.97 0.60—1.57 1.20 0.79—1.80 1.16 0.78—1.71
OVC's caregiver HIV status
 Negative 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Positive ***29.27 21.04—40.72 ***51.65 11.07—240.9 ***67.69 25.60—179.0 ***33.74 15.24—74.67 ***13.94 7.34—26.45
 Undisclosed ***3.29 2.43—4.47 2.50 0.90—7.01 ***4.10 2.07—8.14 ***5.25 2.87—9.57 ***3.47 2.03—5.95
Wealth Quintile
 Lowest (Q1) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Second 0.84 0.58—1.22 0.61 0.20—1.83 1.23 0.61—2.49 0.63 0.33—1.23 0.74 0.38—1.44
 Middle 1.09 0.78—1.52 1.94 0.73—5.14 1.10 0.56—2.13 1.13 0.63—2.01 0.90 0.50—1.61
 Fourth 1.29 0.93—1.78 1.10 0.41—2.98 1.68 0.87—3.22 1.41 0.80—2.46 1.04 0.59—1.83
 Highest (Q5) **1.42 1.03—1.96 1.05 0.39—2.88 1.37 0.71—2.64 1.25 0.71—2.18 1.65 0.96—2.82
Education of the OVC's caregiver
 Never attended 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary 0.78 0.59—1.03 0.71 0.31—1.66 0.59 0.33—1.03 0.86 0.53—1.40 0.88 0.54—1.43
 Secondary or higher 0.86 0.46—1.60 0.57 0.08—4.17 0.43 0.11—1.63 0.72 0.22—2.35 1.44 0.51—4.01
Household member(s) has health insurance card
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No ***0.34 0.25—0.45 **0.28 0.11—0.73 ***0.28 0.15—0.52 ***0.38 0.22—0.65 ***0.29 0.17—0.50
Place of residence
 Rural 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Urban **0.71 0.55—0.91 ***0.16 0.06—0.43 ***0.38 0.22—0.65 0.81 0.53—1.26 **1.59 1.04—2.44
Constant 0.0017 0.0009-0.0035 0.0009 0.0001-0.0172 0.0007 0.0001-0.0045 0.001 0.0002-0.0053 0.0028 0.0007-0.0113
rho (intraclass correlation coefficient) 0.85 0.83-0.87 0.89 0.79-0.95 0.88 0.82-0.92 0.87 0.81-0.91 0.86 0.80-0.90
Model statistics Number of OVC = 39,578 Number of OVC = 5,217 Number of OVC = 10,457 Number of OVC = 12,261 Number of OVC = 11,643
Number of households = 20,082 Number of households = 4,477 Number of households = 8,165 Number of households = 9,586 Number of households = 9,011
OVC per household: min = 1, avg = 2, max = 9 OVC per household: min = 1, avg = 1.2, max = 6 OVC per household: min = 1, avg = 1.3, max = 7 OVC per household: min = 1, avg = 1.3, max = 7 OVC per household: min = 1, avg = 1.3, max = 6
  1. Statistical significance: ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.05