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Table 3 Associations (OR) between potential predictors and secondary care contacts in relation to diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (N = 759)

From: Socio-demographic, clinical and psychological predictors of healthcare utilization among patients with musculoskeletal disorders: a prospective cohort study

Potential predictor Contacts Crude Adjustedc
Casesb (n) % OR OR 95% CI
Clinical
 Pain 0-10a 112 15 1.23 1.24 (1.11;1.40)*
 Standardized disability 0-100a 108 14 1.01 1.01 (1.00;1.02)*
 Pain site
  Low back 57 17 1.00 1.00
  Neck 23 11 0.60 0.69 (0.39;1.19)
  Shoulder 32 14 0.80 0.79 (0.47;1.33)
Socio-demographic
 Level of education
  None 20 15 1.00 1.00
  Low (<  3 years) or vocational and training 60 50 1.01 1.02 (0.59;2.00)
  Middle (3–4 years) or high (>  4 years) 31 13 0.83 0.88 (0.45;1.71)
 Sickness leaved
  No 95 14 1.00 1.00
  Yes 16 20 1.44 1.60 (0.82;3.11)
 Private Health Insurance
  No 74 15 1.00 1.00
  Yes 30 13 0.85 0.94 (0.57;1.55)
Psychological
 Fear avoidance 0-20a 108 14 1.07 1.05 (1.01;1.10)*
 Psychological wellbeing (WHO-5) 0-100a 112 15 0.98 0.98 (0.97;0.99)*
General
 General Health      
  Excellent/Very good 40 13 1.00 1.00 –*
  Good 45 14 1.11 1.16 (0.70;1.91)
  Fair/poor 25 19 1.58 1.86 (1.00;3.45)
  1. Abbreviations: OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, WHO World Health Organization
  2. * P < 0.05
  3. aOR per 1 unit increase in scores
  4. bpatients with ≥1 contact to secondary care
  5. cadjusted for age, sex, duration of pain and comorbidity
  6. dPatients retired or with flex job or on disability pension was also included in this analysis (n = 186)
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