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Table 1 PHQ-9 scores, sociodemographic and healthcare-related characteristics of adults in Chitwan District, Nepal, 2013

From: Healthcare utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures associated with depression in adults: a cross-sectional analysis in Nepal

 NOverall (%)PHQ-9 Negative
N = 1960 (96.41%)
PHQ-9 positive
N = 80 (3.56%)
PHQ-9 Scores2040   
Range 0–240–910–24
Median (IQR) 2 (0–4)2 (0–4)11 (10–14)
Demographic Characteristics2040   
Mean age (SD) 39.77 (15.23)39.54 (15.06)45.87 (18.49)
Female133659.75%96.44%3.56%
Male70440.25%96.41%3.59%
Educational Status
 Sub primary/illiterate27512.8393.06%6.94%
 Primary/literate68632.6895.17%4.82%
 Secondary or higher107954.4997.96%2.04%
Occupation
 Agriculture, Labour or Service140966.4095.73%4.23%
 Business and Service30215.4698.15%1.85%
 Unemployed944.8897.01%2.93%
 Student1619.9997.73%2.27%
 Other743.2697.22%2.78%
Relative wealth indexa
 Low15522.2794.00%6.00%
 Average16232.5796.74%3.26%
 High16145.1696.92%3.07%
Healthcare Utilizationa479 39980
Inpatient49   
 Percentage with any admissions 8.027.8215.83
 Median annual number of visits (IQR) 0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)
Outpatient228   
 Percentage with any outpatient visits 39.9938.8369.70
 Median annual number of visits (IQR) 0 (0–8)0 (0–4)4 (0–8)
Total246   
 Percentage with any healthcare utilization 44.9343.9170.85
 Median annual number of visits (IQR) 1 (0–8)0 (0–5)4 (0–8)
Healthcare Expenditurea479   
Inpatient47   
 Percentage with any expenditure 99.0699.1997.46
 Mean annual OOP expenditure in USD (SD) 65.94 (766.01)68.12 (820.59)53.95 (194.63)
Outpatient191   
 Percentage with any expenditure 85.5885.6088.65
 Mean annual OOP expenditure in USD (SD) 44.85 (130.81)41.44 (124.81)63.71 (161.17)
Total212   
 Percentage with any expenditure 87.8687.4497.43
 Mean annual OOP expenditure in USD (SD) 110.80 (822.78)109.55 (878.97)117.66 (265.46)
  1. Demographic characteristics are presented as row percentages, while healthcare utilization and expenditure are presented as column percentages
  2. Age and OOP healthcare expenditures (US Dollars) are presented as means and standard deviations (SD), using bootstrapping techniques with 1000 bootstrap samples to estimate the SD for OOP expenditures
  3. PHQ-9 scores and number of healthcare visits are presented as medians and interquartile ranges (IQR)
  4. The percentage with any expenditure is calculated as a proportion of those who utilised inpatient or outpatient care respectively
  5. aRelative wealth index, healthcare utilization and healthcare expenditure were assessed in 479 of the total 2040 participants who answered part 2 of the survey and all percentages and means are adjusted for sampling-probability weights