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Table 4 Association between the category of mental disorders, mortality, and total medical expenditures per capita, controlling for all other variables (Cox proportional hazard model and GLM, N = 285,125)

From: Identification of psychiatric patients with high mortality and low medical utilization: a population-based propensity score-matched analysis

VariablesDeath per 1000 person-daysDeathP-valueMean of total medical expenditures (USD)P-value
Adjusted HR95% CI
Health and Medication Conditions
Category of mental disorders< 0.0001*
  Affective disorders0.06171.2461.180–1.316< 0.0001*15,791.06 
  Anxiety disorders0.033512,618.92 
  Substance use disorders0.05001.0641.009–1.1220.0231*13,307.55 
  Schizophrenia0.06851.0720.923–1.2450.364629,748.05 
  Other disorders0.05461.2331.195–1.271< 0.0001*13,016.03 
Multiple diagnoses< 0.0001*
  Present0.048817,275.36 
  Absent0.04211.0951.062–1.130< 0.0001*16,517.29 
Involuntary hospitalization< 0.0001*
  Present0.089228,345.00 
  Absent0.04431.4170.988–2.0320.05795447.64 
Comorbidity (CCI)0.4944
  00.021216,887.48 
  10.07441.0040.970–1.0400.813416,869.13 
   ≥ 20.18251.1781.126–1.233< 0.0001*16,932.35 
Use of psychiatric medication< 0.0001*
  Mood stabilizer0.05031.0611.025–1.0980.0007*16,743.08 
  Antidepressants0.03651.0570.968–1.1530.216916,357.20 
  Antipsychotics0.05791.2371.152–1.330< 0.0001*16,591.78 
  Multiple categories0.076318,354.09 
  None0.02741.2131.166–1.261< 0.0001*16,435.46 
Demographics
Gender< 0.0001*
  Male0.05781.0391.009–1.0690.0104*17,058.96 
  Female0.033316,733.68 
Age (years)< 0.0001*
   < 190.003516,905.26 
  20–340.01051.7601.460–2.122< 0.0001*16,768.65 
  35–490.01872.1431.789–2.567< 0.0001*16,892.76 
  50–640.02381.9151.598–2.294< 0.0001*16,847.92 
   ≥ 650.14581.8091.514–2.162< 0.0001*17,067.00 
Occupationa< 0.0001*
  First category0.03271.0731.021–1.1270.0053*16,757.76 
  Second category0.031816,719.60 
  Third category0.08471.0661.011–1.1240.0180*16,749.59 
  Fourth category0.03381.0580.817–1.3710.667016,464.26 
  Fifth category0.10311.1931.029–1.3820.0190*17,809.09 
  Sixth category0.08141.0651.003–1.1300.0400*16,877.63 
Premium-based monthly salary (USD)< 0.0001*
   ≤ 5760.04071.0950.987–1.2140.085717,166.44 
  576–7600.06221.0790.967–1.2050.175517,050.43 
  760–9600.02771.1851.038–1.3520.0119*16,888.68 
  960–12100.03221.0640.938–1.2080.332216,879.77 
  1210–15260.02641.0240.895–1.1710.731916,713.87 
  > 15260.019816,678.74 
Provider Features
Level of hospital< 0.0001*
  Medical center0.04781.1231.068–1.181< 0.0001*17,468.25 
  Regional hospital0.05501.2001.146–1.256< 0.0001*17,110.40 
  District hospital0.06441.1011.056–1.148< 0.0001*16,871.55 
  Clinic0.029516,135.08 
Ownership of Hospital< 0.0001*
  Public0.06251.0130.972–1.0560.529717,341.45 
  Private0.035916,581.21 
  Consortium0.04641.0120.968–1.0580.608216,605.31 
 Association0.06691.1391.044–1.2430.0035*17,057.32 
Psychiatrist’s year of practice< 0.0001*
   ≤ 50.04841.7091.629–1.793< 0.0001*16,838.19 
  6–100.04361.2371.193–1.283< 0.0001*16,843.31 
  11–150.04451.0200.980–1.0620.320616,938.61 
   ≥ 160.042316,965.18 
Geographic Characteristics
Region0.1356
  Taipei0.038816,906.41 
  Northern0.04551.0090.959–1.0620.726516,897.61 
  Central0.04331.0280.982–1.0760.240116,819.57 
  Southern0.05161.0871.036–1.1420.0008*16,891.88 
  Southeast0.04801.0140.970–1.0610.536716,878.81 
  Eastern0.06171.1411.043–1.2470.0038*16,983.65 
Urbanization level0.7318
  Level 1 (Highest)0.03611.0630.976–1.1580.159716,906.04 
  Level 20.04051.0800.996–1.1710.063616,912.38 
  Level 30.04351.0690.984–1.1610.113116,921.85 
  Level 40.05411.0500.970–1.1360.230116,851.65 
  Level 50.068816,928.21 
  Level 60.07301.0810.989–1.1820.085516,872.15 
  Level 7 (Lowest)0.06451.1141.013–1.2240.0264*16,881.97 
  1. * P < 0.05
  2. HR hazard ratio
  3. a First category includes private employees and public servants; Second category includes labor union members; Third category includes farmers and fishermen; Fourth category includes soldiers; Fifth category includes social security insureds; Sixth category includes veterans and religious group members