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Table 1 Characteristics of case settings and embedded sites

From: Understanding health professional role integration in complex adaptive systems: a multiple-case study of physician assistants in Ontario, Canada

Multiple Case Study Settings
Sites:Case 1:
Family Medicine (FM)
Case 2:
Emergency Medicine (EM)
Case 3:
General Surgery (GS)
Case 4:
Inpatient Medicine (IM)
Embedded sites6 Family Practices; Mix of urban (5 sites) and rural (1 site); mix of academic (4 sites) and non-academic practices (2 sites).6 Emergency Departments; Mix of urban (4 sites) and rural sites (2 sites), mix of academic (5 sites) and non-academic hospitals (1 site)5 Hospitals; mix of rural/non-academic (1 site), and urban/academic hospitals (4 sites)3 Hospitals; All urban sites, all academic hospitals (3 sites)
Interview DataSemi-structured Interviews (16); 7 PAs, 8 Physicians, 1 Clinic ManagerSemi-structured Interviews (13); 7 PAs, 5 Physicians, 1 RPNSemi-structured Interviews (12); 5 PAs, 3 Surgeons, 2 Surgical Residents, 2 IP Directors (MD, RPN)Semi-structured Interviews (5); 4 PAs, 1 Physician
Document DataDocuments: medical directives, integration tool kits, HFO website/ communications, Patient’s First Document, 2011 College of Family Physicians of Canada position statement on PAsDocuments: medical directives, job postings, HFO website/ communications, organizational websites, media/newsDocuments: medical directives, job postings, HFO website/ communications, organizational websites, media/news; OHA position statement on PAs; surgery department handbooksDocuments: medical directives, HFO website/ communications, organizational websites; OHA position statement on PAs
Description of PA roleCertified Canadian (civilian and military) and United States trained PAs with 2–9 year of family medicine experience at the time of data collection.PAs were all Canadian Certified (CCPA) and had been practicing in emergency medicine for 4–9 years at the time of data collection.PAs were all Canadian Certified (CCPA) and had been practicing in general surgery for 2.5–5.5 years at the time of data collection.PAs were all Canadian Certified (CCPA) and had been practicing at their hospital site for 2–5.5 years at the time of data collection.
PA-MD supervisor relationshipPA/MD work collaboratively, often in parallel. Relationships are longitudinal. PA usually supervised by 1 primary physician.PA/MD work in same general department, but might be assigned to different areas to different patient cohorts (i.e. triage or assigned different CTAS level patients). PA works with multiple supervising physicians.PA/surgeon work in same department, but surgeon often in OR. PA present on the ward and for consults within the ED and hospital. PA works with multiple rotating supervising physicians. PA is continuously available.PA/MD work in same department, but may divide patients between team or may be assigned different tasks. PA works with multiple supervising physicians, so becomes centre of continuity.