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Table 2 Strategies to tailor patient-centred care for women

From: Multi-level strategies to tailor patient-centred care for women: qualitative interviews with clinicians

PCC domainThemes and corresponding strategies
Foster a healing relationshipEstablish rapport
• Engage in brief, friendly discussion prior to clinical discussion
• Ask patients to share some information about themselves
• Share some information about yourself to find common
Build trust
• Listen to the patient
• Adopt non-judgmental facial expression/tone of voice
• Make eye contact by facing the patient (not a computer)
• Sit in a relaxed manner across or beside the patient
Exchange informationExplore patient context
• Set aside clinical agenda/allocate time to explore patient context
• Identify contextual factors such as age, lifestyle, culture or race, and socioeconomic status
• Discuss patient values and goals/revisit over time
Assess and support patient knowledge
• Ask patients what they understand about their health care issue, condition or treatment
• Use lay language
• Employ visual aids to supplement discussion
• Ask patients to summarize details in their own words
Address emotions or concernsElicit emotions or concerns
• Ask if patient has emotions, concerns, worries or discomfort
• Allocate time to discuss those issues
Validate emotions or concerns
• Assure patient that what they feel is normal and common
• Provide enough time for patient to fully express themselves
• Allow the patient to take breaks if needed or revisit the topic at a later time
Provide or refer to supportive resources
• Provide advice or informational material about issues causing emotions or concerns, or to help patient manage them
• Refer women to resources: informational material, support groups, social worker, etc.
Manage uncertaintyAcknowledge uncertainties
• Explicitly mention uncertainties about prognosis, and the risks and benefits of treatment options
• Discuss uncertainties related to patient’s contextual factors (i.e. age, lifestyle, health status)
Provide educational material
• To supplement discussion, provide educational material to help patients understand the nature, risk and impact of uncertainties
Make decisionsCollaborate on decisions
• Describe available management options
• Ask patients about preferences given their contextual factors
• Allow patient to make final choice; otherwise, they may not comply
Involve family members or care partners
• If desired by the patient, extend collaboration to family members or care partners
• Invite them to ask questions by telephone
• Involve them in appointments
Enable self-managementOffer flexible follow-up options
• In addition to traditional in-person visits, offer home-based follow-up through telephone or computer
Tailor self-care plans
• Jointly plan self-management strategies with patients to accommodate preferences and contextual factors
• Provide instructions and informational material to support self-care including how to self-monitor health and what to do if symptoms change or worsen
• Refer patients to informational material or support groups
Additional conditionsEnsure privacy so that women feel safe and comfortable sharing information
• Offer women-only hours or services
• Maintain a separate waiting area or clinic space for women
• Provide access to female clinicians
Accommodate children so that women can seek care/manage their own health
• Allow women to bring children to appointments
• Offer a play area or child care
• Maintain flexible appointment schedules (evening/weekend) for women who must remain at home with children during the day