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Table 3 Descriptions of the five components of KE by Ward et al. [10] including the themes and elements of knowledge mobilisation [7]

From: The transfer of knowledge on integrated care among five European regions: a qualitative multi-method study

Problem definition involved: identifying, clarifying, focusing, reviewing and evolving the problem over time.
Context involved: exploring, discovering and revealing context which consists of the personal, interpersonal, organisational, and institutional characteristics relevant to transferring knowledge into action.
Knowledge involved: locating the knowledge, classifying the knowledge, assessing the knowledge, tailoring the knowledge, usability of the knowledge/practical limitations, and whose and what knowledge?
Intervention involved: negotiating KT roles and responsibilities, clarifying the type of intervention to be used (information management, linkage, decision/ implementation support, capacity development), integrating the intervention, making the intervention iterative, and why and how mobilise knowledge?
Use involved: deciding how the knowledge will be used (knowledge was used in a range of different ways: directly i.e. with little modification), conceptually (i.e. to change opinions) or politically (i.e. to confirm or challenge practices or policies), considering the practicalities of use, spreading knowledge to others and sustaining knowledge use.