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Table 2 SOAS-RE aggressive incidents by type of aggression (verbal, threats, physical) and total

From: Characteristics of aggressive incidents in emergency primary health care described by the Staff Observation Aggression Scale – Revised Emergency (SOAS-RE)

 Type of aggression 
 Verbal aggressionThreatsPhysical aggression Total
 (n = 100)(n = 78)(n = 138) (n = 316)
SOAS-RE columns1n(%)n(%)n(%)p-value2n(%)
Provocation of aggressive behavior
 No understandable  provocation24(24.0)22(28.2)41(29.7)0.61587(27.5)
 Person had to wait39(39.0)21(26.9)13(9.4)< 0.00173(23.1)
 The person was denied something25(25.0)24(30.8)21(15.2)0.02270(22.2)
 The person disagreed about assessment/advice31(31.0)25(32.1)27(19.7)0.06383(26.3)
 Involuntary assessment of health condition (3.0)3(3.8)17(12.3)0.01023(7.3)
 Other10(10.0)9(11.5)41(29.7)< 0.00160(19.0)
Target of aggression
 None2(2.0)0 2(1.4) 4(1.3)
 Furniture/object1(1.0)4(5.1)26(18.8)< 0.00131(9.8)
 Physician17(17.0)23(29.5)33(23.9)0.14073(23.1)
 Nurse84(84.0)62(79.5)104(75.4)0.269250(79.1)
 Ambulance personnel3(3.0)4(5.1)9(6.5)0.47316(5.1)
 Security guard/police5(5.0)4(5.2)25(18.1)0.00134(10.8)
 Other patients/persons12(12.0)11(14.1)13(9.4)0.56736(11.4)
Consequence(s) for victim(s)
 None36(36.0)29(37.2)42(30.4)0.519107(33.9)
 Object(s) damaged0 1(1.3)13(9.4) 14(4.4)
 Psychological stress43(43.0)34(43.6)67(48.6)0.643144(45.6)
 Felt threatened28(28.0)30(38.5)72(52.2)0.001130(41.1)
 Pain < 10 min0 1(1.3)10(7.2) 11(3.5)
 Pain > 10 min0 0 4(2.9) 4(1.3)
 Visible injury0 0 4(2.9) 4(1.3)
 Need for treatment by a physician0 1(1.3)2(1.4) 3(0.9)
 Need to be taken off duty3(3.0)3(3.8)9(6.5) 15(4.7)
 Other3(3.0)0 8(5.8) 11(3.5)
Measure(s) to stop aggression
 None5(5.0)1(1.3)4(2.9)0.383310(3.2)
 Talked to the person67(67.0)49(62.8)63(45.7)0.002179(56.6)
 Took the person aside5(5.0)5(6.4)16(11.6)0.15026(8.2)
 Withdrew for situation/ended call30(30.0)25(32.1)48(34.8)0.734103(32.6)
 Complied with persons wish1(1.0)5(6.4)1(0.7)0.01937(2.2)
 Asked the person to leave the site6(6.0)14(17.9)22(15.9)0.03142(13.3)
 Forced the person to leave/held by force8(8.0)6(7.7)45(32.6)< 0.00159(18.7)
 Other17(17.0)14(17.9)41(29.7)0.03572(22.8)
Persons involved in measure(s) to stop aggression
 Physician13(13.0)26(33.3)33(23.9)0.00572(22.8)
 Nurse78(78.0)50(64.1)91 (65.9)0.071219(69.3)
 Ambulance personnel7(7.0)8(10.3)12(8.7)0.74027(8.5)
 Security guard/police25(25.0)28(35.9)93(67.4)< 0.001146(46.2)
 Other patients0 0 1(0.7) 1(0.3)
 Next of kin0 4(5.1)10(7.2) 14(4.4)
 Other6(6.0)8(10.3)7(5.1)0.32421(6.6)
  1. 1 Multiple responses were possible in each SOAS-RE column
  2. 2 p-value from a Chi-square test for differences between type of aggression, omitted if too few cases
  3. 3 Exact test