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Table 3 Factors related to patients’ perception of receipt, by GPs, of results of treatment carried out by medical specialists in 34 countries (multi-response logistic multilevel analysis)

From: Patients’ perception of communication at the interface between primary and secondary care: a cross-sectional survey in 34 countries

Ni = 34 countries
Nj = 6529 GPs
Nk = 43,802 patients
Odds Ratioa(CI)
patient level
 The patient has a personal doctor2.30(1.91, 2.75)
GP level
 Frequency of referral letters sent to medical specialists by GPs (ref. more than ‘seldom or never’)
  Seldom or never0.83(0.72, 0.95)
  Score of job satisfaction of GPs1.11(1.00, 1.24)
Country level
 List system in place1.31(0.85, 2.03)
 Variance Country level (SE)1.03 
 Variance GP level (SE)1.71 
 Percentage of reduction of variance (Country level)b12% 
 Percentage of reduction of variance (GP level)c0.5% 
 Intraclass correlation (ICC) country level17% 
 Intraclass correlation (ICC) GP level28% 
  1. CI 95% confidence interval
  2. aadjusted also for age and gender of GPs, practice location, employment status of GPs, age and gender of patients, income of patients, perceived health status of patients, and presence of at least one longstanding disease
  3. bthis percentage was calculated by using the variance at a country level of the empty model (variance empty model =1.18)
  4. cthis percentage was calculated by using the variance at a country level of the empty model (variance empty model =1.72)