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Table 1 Demographics, indicator variables and health outcomes by class (N = 752)

From: The heterogeneous health state profiles of high-risk healthcare utilizers and their longitudinal hospital readmission and mortality patterns

 Total (N = 752)Class 1: Frail, cognitively impaired, physically dependent (N = 103, 13.7%)Class 2: Pre-frail but largely physically independent (N = 323, 43%)Class 3: Physically independent (N = 326, 43.3%)P-value
Demographics
 Age (year)    <  0.001
  > 65 years511 (68)93 (90.3)271 (83.9)147 (45.1) 
  ≤ 65 years241 (32)10 (9.7)52 (16.1)179 (54.9) 
 Range20, 9830, 9835, 9720, 95 
Gender, n (%)    0.018
 Female394 (52.4)66 (64.1)171 (52.9)157 (48.2) 
 Male358 (47.6)37 (35.9)152 (47.1)169 (51.8) 
Race, n (%)    0.039
 Chinese588 (78.2)78 (75.7)268 (83.0)242 (74.2) 
 Indian69 (9.2)10 (9.7)28 (8.7)31 (9.5) 
 Malay77 (10.2)10 (9.7)24 (7.4)43 (13.2) 
 Others18 (2.4)5 (4.9)3 (0.9)10 (3.1) 
Indicator variables
 Religion, n (%)    <  0.001
  No234 (31.1)31 (30.1)76 (23.5)127 (39.0) 
  Yes518 (68.9)72 (69.9)247 (76.5)199 (61.0) 
 Medicine consolidation issues, n (%)    0.006
  No673 (89.5)89 (86.4)279 (86.4)305 (93.6) 
  Yes79 (10.5)14 (13.6)44 (13.6)21 (6.4) 
 Quality of family support, n (%)    <  0.001
  Absent48 (6.4)2 (1.9)11 (3.4)35 (10.7) 
  Dysfunctional11 (1.5)1 (1.0)9 (2.8)1 (0.3) 
  Distant35 (4.7)2 (1.9)18 (5.6)15 (4.6) 
  Supportive658 (87.5)98 (95.1)285 (88.2)275 (84.4) 
 Employment, n (%)    <  0.001
  Unemployed537 (71.4)95 (92.2)307 (95.0)135 (41.4) 
  Retired30 (4.0)5 (4.9)9 (2.8)16 (4.9) 
  Employed185 (24.6)3 (2.9)7 (2.2)175 (53.7) 
 Clinical insight, n (%)    0.003
  No45 (6.0)5 (4.9)30 (9.3)10 (3.1) 
  Yes707 (94.0)98 (95.1)293 (90.7)316 (96.9) 
 ADL, n (%)    <  0.001
  Dependent46 (6.1)46 (44.7)00 
  Moderate Assist56 (7.4)46 (44.7)10 (3.1)0 
  Minimal Assist121 (16.1)11 (10.7)108 (33.4)2 (0.6) 
  Independent529 (70.3)000205 (63.5)324 (99.4) 
 AMT, n (%)    <  0.001
  0–6 point(s)136 (18.1)79 (76.7)52 (16.1)5 (1.5) 
  7–10 points616 (81.9)24 (23.3)271 (83.9)321 (98.5) 
 CFS, n (%)    <  0.001
  1–3 point(s)322 (42.8)027 (8.4)295 (90.5) 
  4–5 points292 (38.8)9 (8.7)253 (78.3)30 (9.2) 
  6–8 points138 (18.4)94 (91.3)43 (13.3)1 (0.3) 
 CCI score, n (%)    <  0.001
  0 points39 (5.2)2 (1.9)037 (11.3) 
  1 point53 (7.0)3 (2.9)050 (15.3) 
  2 points63 (8.4)1 (1.0)10 (3.1)52 (16.0) 
   ≥ 3 points597 (79.4)97 (94.2)313 (96.9)187 (57.4) 
Health outcomes
 Hospital readmission n (%)
  30 days112 (14.9)18 (17.5)59 (18.3)35 (10.7)0.027
  90 days182 (24.2)35 (34.0)86 (26.6)61 (18.7)0.004
 Mortality, n (%)
  30 days22 (2.9)7 (6.8)12 (3.7)3 (0.9)0.005
  90 days56 (7.4)22 (21.4)27 (8.4)7 (2.1)<  0.001
  1. Abbreviations – ADL Activities of Daily Living, AMT Abbreviated Mental Test, CFS Clinical Frailty Score, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index