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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and outcomes of ALC and non-ALC patients

From: Risk factors, costs and complications of delayed hospital discharge from internal medicine wards at a Canadian academic medical centre: retrospective cohort study

 ALC patients (N = 255)Non-ALC patients (N = 4056)P-value
Age median (IQR)81.0 (72.5–88.0)68.0 (55.0–79.0)< 0.0001
Age by category
 < 80 years103 (40.4%)3059 (75.4%)< 0.0001
 > =80 years152 (59.6%)997 (24.6%) 
Male111 (43.5%)2049 (50.5%)0.0357
Estimated yearly income ($) based on postal code35,27735,2770.4345
Median (IQR)(32,410-36,685)(31,883-36,685)
Marital status
 Currently married100 (39.2%)1817 (44.8%)< 0.0001
 Widowed87 (34.1%)707 (17.4%) 
 Other68 (26.7%)1532 (37.8%) 
Admitted from
 Home187 (73.3%)3639 (89.7%)< 0.0001
 Retirement home51 (20.0%)245 (6.0%) 
 Other17 (6.7%)172 (4.2%) 
Charlson Comorbidity Index
 050 (19.6%)1322 (32.6%)< 0.0001
 157 (22.4%)941 (23.2%) 
 > =2148 (58.0%)1793 (44.2%) 
Charlson Comorbidity
 Cerebrovascular disease19 (7.5%)83 (2.1%)< 0.0001
 Dementia79 (31.0%)184 (4.5%)< 0.0001
 Diabetes with complications75 (29.4%)790 (19.5%)0.0002
Top 7 CMG
 13911 (4.3%)430 (10.6%)0.0019
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
 13815 (5.9%)232 (5.7%)> 0.9999
 Viral / unspecified pneumonia
 48717 (6.7%)173 (4.3%)0.0980
 Lower urinary tract infection 
 2544 (1.6%)145 (3.6%)0.1090
 Gastrointestinal hemorrhage
 1969 (3.5%)134 (3.3%)0.9881
 Heart failure without cardiac catheter
 4377 (2.8%)113 (2.8%)> 0.9999
 Diabetes
 4776 (2.4%)109 (2.7%)0.9036
 Renal failure
Allied health team in hospital
 Physiotherapy221 (86.7%)1340 (33.0%)< 0.0001
 Occupational therapy178 (69.8%)510 (12.6%)< 0.0001
 Speech language pathology50 (19.6%)149 (3.7%)< 0.0001
 Respiratory therapy18 (7.1%)175 (4.3%)0.0575
Length of stay in days30.85 (19.79–69.88)3.95 (2.29–7.57)< 0.0001
Median (IQR)
ALC days13.00  
Median (IQR)(7.00–37.50)
Hospital cost per patient ($)22,4595003< 0.0001
Median (IQR)(11,230-52,837)(3627-8189)
Complications in hospital
 Patients with any complication65 (25.5%)213 (5.3%)< 0.0001
 Delirium12 (4.7%)29 (0.7%)< 0.0001
 Aspiration9 (3.5%)16 (0.4%)< 0.0001
 Pulmonary embolism0 (0%)3 (0.1%)> 0.9999
 Congestive heart failure exacerbation4 (1.6%)47 (1.2%)0.5424
 Acute kidney injury7 (2.8%)57 (1.4%)0.1013
 Pressure ulcer4 (1.6%)3 (0.1%)0.0004
 Traumatic fractures3 (1.2%)2 (0.1%)0.0019
 Drug adverse effects3 (1.2%)10 (0.3%)0.0376
 Nosocomial infections36 (14.1%)76 (1.9%)< 0.0001
 Pneumonia15 (5.9%)24 (0.6%)< 0.0001
 Urinary tract infection17 (6.7%)34 (0.8%)< 0.0001
Clostridioides difficile colitis8 (3.1%)9 (0.2%)< 0.0001
 Sepsis0 (0%)12 (0.3%)> 0.9999
Death in hospital36 (14.1%)166 (4.1%) 
Mortality rate0.250.66 
Deaths / 100 patient days
Discharge destination (of those who were discharged alive)< 0.0001
 Acute care hospital6 (2.7%)51 (1.3%) 
 Rehabilitation71 (32.4%)65 (1.7%) 
 Home14 (6.4%)2462 (63.3%) 
 Home with community agency support52 (23.7%)1015 (26.1%) 
 Retirement home18 (8.2%)145 (3.7%) 
 Nursing home38 (17.4%)21 (0.5%) 
 Chronic care15 (6.9%)32 (0.8%) 
 Other5 (2.3%)99 (2.5%) 
Readmission to hospital within 30 days (of those who were discharged alive)26/219 (11.9%)676/3890 (17.4%)0.0440