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Table 3 Unit-level organizational change and sickness absence – multilevel random effects analyses

From: Organizational change and the risk of sickness absence: a longitudinal multilevel analysis of organizational unit-level change in hospitals

Change typeModel 1aModel 2b
Short-term SALong-term SAShort-term SALong-term SA
(<=8 days)(>=9 days)(<=8 days)(>=9 days)
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Unit-level upsizing next quarter1.01(0.95–1.07) ns1.001(0.92–1.09) ns1.02(0.96–1.08) ns1.02(0.94–1.12) ns
Unit-level upsizing this quarter0.75(0.72–0.79) ***0.83(0.78–0.89) ***0.77(0.73–0.80) ***0.89(0.83–0.95) **
Unit-level upsizing previous quarter0.83(0.80–0.87) ***0.83(0.77–0.89) ***0.85(0.81–0.89) ***0.88(0.82–0.94) ***
Unit-level downsizing next quarter0.65(0.62–0.68) ***0.92(0.86–0.98) **0.67(0.64–0.69) ***0.96(0.91–1.03) ns
Unit-level downsizing this quarter1.11(1.06–1.16) ***0.92(0.86–0.98) ns1.11(1.06–1.16) ***0.94(0.88–1.01) ns
Unit-level downsizing previous quarter1.20(1.14–1.27) ***1.01(0.93–1.09) ns1.22(1.15–1.29) ***1.04(0.96–1.13) ns
Unit-level merger next quarter0.87(0.77–0.99) ns0.86(0.72–1.03) ns0.86(0.76–0.97) ns0.89(0.74–1.06) ns
Unit-level merger this quarter1.12(1.01–1.24) ns1.10(0.96–1.27) ns1.11(1.01–1.23) ns1.14(0.99–1.31) ns
Unit-level merger previous quarter0.97(0.88–1.07) ns0.92(0.79–1.06) ns0.97(0.87–1.07) ns0.95(0.82–1.10) ns
Unit-level spin-off next quarter0.94(0.78–1.13) ns0.87(0.67–1.14) ns0.94(0.78–1.12) ns0.89(0.68–1.15) ns
Unit-level spin-off this quarter1.09(0.93–1.27) ns1.007(0.80–1.25) ns1.08(0.92–1.26) ns1.01(0.80–1.26) ns
Unit-level spin-off previous quarter1.05(0.89–1.23) ns0.72(0.56–0.93) ns1.04(0.88–1.22) ns0.72(0.56–0.93) ns
Unit-level outsourcing next quarter0.37(0.27–0.51) ***0.49(0.30–0.80) **0.36(0.27–0.50) ***0.51(0.32–0.83) **
Unit-level insourcing this quarter0.17(0.07–0.42) ***0.44 c(0.12–1.51) ns0.15(0.06–0.37) ***0.44(0.13–1.50) ns
Unit-level insourcing previous quarter0.48(0.29–0.79) **0.40 c(0.15–1.03) ns0.46(0.28–0.75) **0.46(0.18–1.19) ns
  1. Multilevel random effects logistic regression with short- and long-term sickness absence as outcome variables. Employee-quarters nested within employees, employees nested within units and units nested within departments
  2. Significance: the level of statistical significance was set to p < .01. In the table, ** = p < .01; *** = p < .001
  3. Abbreviations: SA sickness absence, OR odds ratio, CI 95% confidence intervals, ns not significant
  4. N Upsizing 24,688 (313,056 observations); N Downsizing 24,838 (314,053); N Merger 24,165 (296,376); N Spin-off 24,084 (294,466); N Outsourcing 24,094 (293,352); N Insourcing 24,093 (293,310)
  5. a Control variables not included
  6. b Control variables included
  7. c The results are calculated with the restriction “iterate (10)” to make converging possible with three random intercepts. The results are similar to those with two random intercepts (employee and work-unit) and without the iterate restriction