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Table 2 Summary of study outcomes

From: Effectiveness of pharmacist home visits for individuals at risk of medication-related problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

StudyNumberReported outcome measuresResults:
Pharmacist home visit group compared to control
Begley 1995 [35] & Begley 1997 [23]n = 222Medication adherence at 12/12
Contact with GPs from 3/12 to 12/12
Hoarding at 3/12
Economic evaluation
Improved: 86% vs 69%, p = 0.0001
Less: 54% vs 74%, p < 0.01
Less: 1% vs > 95%, P < 0.001
Cost effective (net benefit of the 1st visit £864.47 dropping to £4.87 at the 5th visit)
Holland 2005 [24] & Pacini 2007 [5]n = 822Emergency hospital readmission over 6/12
Death within 6/12
Admission to care home over 6/12
QOL EQ. 5D change over 6/12
QOL VAHS change over 6/12
Hoarding
Economic evaluation
RR 1.30, 95%CI (1.07 to 1.58), p = 0.0009
HR 0.75 (0.53 to 1.10), p = 0.14
37/300 vs 32/285, NS
0.006 (− 0.048 to 0.059), p = 0.84
Worse: −4.12 (−8.09 to − 0.15), p = 0.042
Decreased in INT: 40 to 19%, p < 0.001
Not cost effective (net increase of £271 for NHS per patient)
Holland 2007 [25]n = 339Emergency hospital readmission over 6/12
Death within 6/12
QOL EQ. 5D change over 6/12
QOL VAHS change over 6/12
Medication adherence (MARS) at 6/12
RR 1.15 (1.08 to 1.40), p = 0.59
HR 1.18 (0.69 to 2.03), p = 0.54
0.07 (− 0.01 to 0.14), p = 0.08
− 0.93 (− 6.05 to 4.20), p = 0.72
0.12 (− 48 to 0.73)p = 0.68
Jackson 2004 [28]n = 128Bleeding complications over 3/12
Readmission due to bleeding over 3/12
Death within 3/12
15% vs 36%, p = 0.009
3% vs 8%, p = 0.32
7% vs 8%, p = 0.90
Lenaghan 2007 [33]n = 136Non elective hospital admissions over 6/12
Death within 6/12 (% diff in proportion)
Admission to care home over 6/12 (% diff in proportion)
QOL EQ. 5D change over 6/12
QOL VAHS change over 6/12
RR 0.92 (0.50 to 1.70), p = 0.80
1.3% (− 12.2 to 14.7), p = 0.81
− 3.0% (− 11.0 to 5.0), p = 0.30
0.09 (− 0.19 to 0.02), p = 0.10
4.8 (− 12.5 to 2.8), p = 0.21
Naunton 2003 [32]n = 136Unplanned hospital admissions at 3/12
Death within 3/12
Medication adherence (“never miss”)
28% vs 45%, p = 0.05
5% vs 8%, not reported
87% vs 44%, p < 0.001
Olesen 2014 [26]n = 630Non elective hospital admissions over 24/12
Death within 24/12
Medication adherence (% non-adherent)
OR 1.14 (0.78 to 1.67), NS
HR 1.41 (0.71 to 2.82), NS
11% vs 10%, NS
Peterson 2004 [29]n = 94Medication adherence (never/rarely miss) Cholesterol levelsNS difference
4.4 (0.6) vs 4.6 (0.8) mmol/L, p = 0.24
Sidel 1990 [22]n = 284Medication adherence (change in those who ‘remember to take’)
Health service contact (change in 3/12)
−.09 vs − 0.19, p = 0.52
− 1.16 vs 0.25, p = 0.08
Triller 2007 [30]n = 144All cause hospital admissions,
HF- related admissions
Death
QOL (not named)
Care costs
58% vs 55%, p = 0.63
51% vs 42%, p = 0.26
18% vs 22%, p = 0.67
NS difference
NS difference
Tuttle 2018 [31]n = 159Acute care utilisation (hospital admissions, emergency care visits, urgent care centre visits)NS difference: 44% vs 41%, p = 0.72
(hospital admissions 26% vs 26%, p = 0.95)
Vuong 2008 [27]n = 316Medication adherence (modified Morisky)
Medication knowledge (bespoke)
Improved: 0.23 vs 0.41, p = 0.028
Improved: 0.70 (0.24) vs 0.78 (0.14), p = 0.001
  1. Key: QOL Quality of Life, RR Rate ratio, OR Odds ratio, HR Hazard ratio, NS Not significant, HF Heart failure