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Table 1 Main characteristics of pharmacist home visit intervention trials

From: Effectiveness of pharmacist home visits for individuals at risk of medication-related problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Study IDCountryDesign (groups) and n (number randomised)Population, i) Age (yrs) mean (SD); ii) Baseline prescribed medications mean (SD)Home visit frequency (INT group only)Components of home visitComparatorPrimary Outcome
Begley 1995 [35] (and Begley 1997 [23])UKRCT (2 INT, 1 C) n = 222Post-discharge (after emergency admission),
Age: INT 84(−); C 82(−)
Meds: INT 5 (2); C 5 (2)
Group 1: No counselling
Group 2: With counselling
5 visits (2w,1 m,3 m,1y)
Medication knowledge and compliance assessment (Group 1).
As above PLUS education on medication management and storage, and advice on improving compliance (Group 2).
Usual careMedication management
Holland 2005 [24] (Holland 2006 [34], and Pacini 2007 [5])UKRCT (1 INT, 1 C) n = 822
The HOMER trial
Post-discharge (after emergency admission),
Age: INT 85.5 (4); C 85.5 (4)
Meds: INT 6 (3); 6 (2)
2 visits (within 2 weeks, 6-8 weeks)Educate, remove out of date drugs, assessed adherence and advised on medication issues. Liaised with GP and local pharmacist where neededUsual careEmergency hospital admissions
Holland 2007 [25]UKRCT (1 INT, 1 C)
n = 339
Post-discharge (after HF admission)
Age: INT 77.6 (9); C 76.4 (9)
Meds: INT 8 (3); C 8 (2)
2 visits (within 2 weeks, 6–8 weeks)Educate, remove out of drugs and lifestyle behaviours, and provided BHF leaflet.
Liaised with GP and local CP where needed
Usual careEmergency hospital admissions
Jackson 2004 [28]AustraliaRCT (1 INT, 1 C)
n = 128
Post-discharge and initiated on warfarin
Age:*INT 70(−); *C 72.5(−)
Meds: INT 6(−); C 6(−)
4 visits (2, 4, 6 and 8 days)Education and counselling related to warfarin with booklet and info sheet provided. Post visit communication with GPUsual careReduction in bleeding complications
Lenaghan 2007 [33]UKRCT (1 INT, 1 C)
n = 136
The POLYMED trial
Community
Age: INT 84.1(−); C 84.5 (−)
Meds: INT 7(−); C 7(−)
2 visits (within 2 weeks, 6–8 weeks)Medication review, educated the patient, removed out-of-date drugs, and assessed the need for an adherence aid. Post visit communications with GPUsual careNon elective hospital admissions
Naunton 2003 [32]AustraliaRCT: 1 INT, 1 C
n = 136
Post-discharge with ≥2 chronic diseases
Age: INT 74(−); C 74 (−)
Meds: INT > 5(−); C > 5(−)
2 visits (5 days, 3 months)Medication review, optimise medication management, education and detect DRPsUsual careUnplanned hospital admissions at 90 days, & Death
Olesen 2014 [26]DenmarkRCT: 1 INT, 1 C n = 630Community
Age: *INT 74(−);*C 74(−);
Meds: INT 7(−); C 7(−)
1 visit followed up by telephone calls at 3, 6 and 9 monthsMedication review, counselling on medication, motivated adherence, provided leaflets. Contact with GP if serious issue.Usual careMedication adherence (Pill count)
Peterson 2004 [29]AustraliaRCT (1 INT, 1 C) n = 94Post-discharge (after CV-related admission) and initiated on statins
Age: INT 65.5 (11); C 63.5 (12)
Meds:*8(−); *8(−)
1 visit at 6 weeks, and monthly thereafter up to 6 monthsEducated on the goals and proven benefits of lipid-lowering drug therapy, and appropriate lifestyle modifications. Assessed for DRPs and compliance checkedUsual careCholesterol levels
Sidel 1990 [22]USARCT (1 INT, 1 C)
n = 284
Community at high risk of medication issues
Age: INT > 65(−); C > 65(−)
Meds: INT NR; C NR
2 visits over a 6–11 months with telephone follow-up as neededEducation on medication, remove out of date drugs, encourage communication with health providers if any issues arose.Usual careMedication management
Triller 2007 [30]USARCT (1 INT, 1 C)
n = 144
Post-discharge (after HF admission)
Age: INT 81.3 (9); C 78.1 (11)
Meds: INT NR; C NR
3 visits over 3–4 weeksMedication review, counselling on medication, healthy lifestyle advice.Usual careAll cause hospital admissions, HF- related admissions
Tuttle 2018 [31]USARCT (1 INT, 1C)
n = 159
Post-discharge (after CKD admission)
Age: INT 70 (12); C 69 (10)
Meds: ALL 13 (5)
1 visit within 7 daysComprehensive medication review, medication action plan, and a personal medication list. Advice on proper medicine use and avoidance of contraindicated drugs.
Post visit contact with GP if needed
Usual careAcute care utilisation (hospital admissions and ED/ urgent care centre visits
Vuong 2008 [27]AustraliaRCT (1 INT, 1 C)
n = 316
Post-discharge
Age: INT 74.4 (11); C 69.3 (12);
Meds: INT 11 (4); C 10 (4)
1 visit within 5 daysMedication reviews, education and information on medications, removal of our-of-date drugs.
Post visit contact with GP and CP if needed.
Usual careMedication adherence
Medication knowledge
  1. Key:
  2. RCT Randomised controlled trial, INT Intervention, C Control, GP General Practitioner, CP Pharmacist, HF Heart failure, CV Cardiovascular, DRP Drug related problems, * medians; NR Not reported