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Table 3 Path analysis findings: direct, indirect and total effects [32]

From: A path analysis on the direct and indirect effects of the unit environment on eating dependence among cognitively impaired nursing home residents

  TESS-NH dimension total effectb
TESS-NH
Dimensionsa
Direct Effects on EdFED (β) Indirect effects on Barthel Index (β) Indirect effects on night restlessness (β) Indirect effects on interventions at the resident level (β) + Barthel Index (β −2.374) + Night restlessness (β 0.259) + Interventions at the resident level (β −0.524)
Outdoor Access −1.225       
Privacy −0.087   0.011    −0.076  
Exit Control −0.604 − 0.596 − 0.159 − 0.543 − 1.200 −0.763 − 1.147
Maintenance 2.919 0.330   0.374 3.249   3.293
Cleanliness 6.574    1.484    8.058
Safety −3.055       
Lighting −2.848 −0.584   −0.500 −3.432   −3.348
Visual Tactile 1.459    −0.774    0.685
Noise 0.361 −0.157   0.745 0.204   1.106
Space Setting −4.446 −1.059 −0.222 −2.011 −5.505 −4.668 −6.457
Familiarity 2.326 0.325   1.016 2.651   3.342
Orientation/cueing 0.533 2.381 0.422 3.000 2.914 0.955 3.533
  1. aUnit autonomy dimension was not entered in the model given it was a constant across the NH units
  2. bDirect effect on EdFED + indirect effects
  3. EdFED Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia scale, TESS-NH Therapeutic Environment Screening Survey for Nursing Home