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Table 2 Outcome, individual, nursing care and NH level variables

From: A path analysis on the direct and indirect effects of the unit environment on eating dependence among cognitively impaired nursing home residents

Variables N (%) averages (95% CI; SD)
Ouctome
 EdFED (0–20) 2.48 (2.22–2.73)
Level of care required, item 11 of EdFED 1.59 (0.84)
 Supportive 659 (64.2)
 Partial 126 (12.3)
 Wholea 242 (23.6)
Individual level
 Age, years 85.32 (84.75–85.89)
 Gender, sex 781 (76.0)
 Barthel Index (0–100) 25.25 (23.47–27.03)
Cognitive Performance Scale (0–6) 3.35 (3.22–3.47)
 Moderate/severely cognitively impaired (≥ 4) 471 (45.9)
Depression Rating Scale (0–14) 2.93 (2.72–3.13)
 Minor or major depressive disorders (≥ 3) 459 (44.7)
Pain Intensity (0–3) 0.72 (0.66–0.77)
Night restlessness (0–4) 0.48 (0.42–0.55)
Verbal aggressiveness (0–4) 0.33 (0.28–0.38)
Physical aggressiveness (0–4) 0.14 (0.11–0.17)
Clinical Instability Score (0–4) 1.34 (1.29–1.40)
Close/intimate relationships with family relatives, weekly (yes) 710 (69.1)
Used to have meals
 In his/her bedroom, alone 223 (21.7)
 Dining room, near one resident (on left or right side) 57 (5.6)
 Dining room, near two residents (on left and right) 92 (9.0)
 Dining room, near two residents (on left/right and in front) 97 (9.4)
 Dining room, surrounded by other residents 558 (54.3)
Nursing care level
 Environmental Interventions (0–6) 3.76 (2.98–4.55)
 Resident Interventions (0–10) 8.46 (7.39–9.52)
NH level
 Beds, number 92.6 (78.6–106.3)
 Units in each NH, number from 1 to 4
 Beds at the NH unit level, number 34.38 (27.93–40.82)
TESS-NH dimensions
 Unit Autonomy (0–1.77)b 1.33 (0.00)
 Outdoor Access (0–3) 2.10 (0.94)
 Privacy (0–1) 0.35 (0.51)
 Exit Control (0–1.20) .91 (0.18)
 Maintenance (0–2) 1.70 (0.36)
 Cleanliness (0–2) 1.92 (0.16)
 Safety (0–2) 1.84 (0.28)
 Lighting (0–2.33) 1.85 (0.18)
 Visual/Tactile stimulation (0–3) 2.42 (0.54)
 Noise (0–2.5)b 1.76 (0.53)
 Space Setting (0–1.75)b 1.80 (0.28)
 Familiarity (0–2.60)b 0.84 (0.50)
 Orientation/cueing (0–1) 0.38 (0.14)
TESS-NH global single item (0–10) 7.00 (1.55; range 5–10)
  1. awhole compensatory care required
  2. bas ranges, there were evaluated the average scores of each dimension [26]
  3. CI Confidence of Interval, EdFED Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia scale, N number, NH nursing home, SD Standard deviation, TESS-NH Therapeutic Environment Screening Survey for Nursing Home