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Table 1 Characteristics of studies (Part 1)

From: Adverse drug reactions in primary care: a scoping review

Study authorYear of publicationOrigin/ country of originAims/purposeStudy populationMethodology/ methodsContext
Gandhi et al [26]2003USATo determine the rates, types, severity and preventability of adverse events related to drugs and to identify preventative strategies1202 outpatients visiting adult primary care practices in Boston (2 hospital-based and 2 community based)Prospective cohort study involving a survey of patients and a chart review of patients visiting primary care practicesPrimary care practices
Gurwitz et al [27]2005USA, CanadaTo assess the incidence of adverse drug and risk factors of adverse drug events in the long-term care settingLong stay residents of two large academic long-term care facilities in Connecticut (1229 beds), USA and Ontario, Canada.Prospective cohort study involving review of medical records for possible drug related eventsLong term Care facilities
Hakkarainen et a [28]2014SwedenTo estimate the prevalence of adverse drug events (ADEs) in 3 months and categorize them into preventable ADEs5025 adults’ medical records were drawn from inpatient care, outpatient clinics and primary care departments from the Swedish county councilRetrospective review of medical recordsOutpatients clinic and primary care departments
Jacobs & Ross [29]2012South AfricaTo examine the adverse effect in a sample of outpatient in Multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis clinicPatients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosisA retrospective review of 350 patients with multidrug resistance tuberculosis in 2010 to 2011Outpatient clinic
Kaushal et al [30]2007USATo investigate the rates and types of adverse drug events in a pediatric ambulatory settingChildren under 21 years that received a prescription during their visitsA prospective cohort study of prescription reviews, telephone surveys at 6 office practices in Greater Boston over 2 months periodAmbulatory care
Kowski et al [31]2016GermanyTo assess the adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in epilepsy outpatient clinic.Epilepsy patients taking antiepileptic.Patients over 16 years age with epilepsy for over 12 months were asked to complete Liverpool Adverse Event Profile (LAEP).Epilepsy outpatient
Lahon et al [21]2012IndiaTo study the prevalence and pattern, as well as the causality, severity and preventability of adverse drug reaction (ADR) of antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers prescribed at this particular hospital222 patients visitingRetrospective observational study ofPsychiatric outpatient clinic
Li & Tian [33]2014SingaporeTo assess adverse drug reaction in oral antibiotics used in dermatological indications28 outpatient cases from National Skin Centre, Singapore in 2013Retrospective case review of outpatient reported on adverse drug reactionOutpatient clinics
Lin et al [34]2008TaiwanTo identify the risk factors, prevalence, and adverse outcomes of potentially inappropriate medication usePatients aged 65+ with long-term diseases requiring prescriptions for treatmentObservational cohort study of computerised claims of elderly patients aged 65+ with chronic conditions requiring long term prescriptions from a tertiary medical centre in March 2005Primary care
Milligan et al [35]2012UKTo analyse adverse drug events in relation to insulin therapy/oral glucose- lowering agents in care home settingOlder patients in nursing homes.A retrospective audit of Reports from National Patient Safety Agency between January 1st 2005 and December 31st 2009.Residential Nursing homes
Montserrat-Capella et al [36]2015Mexico,Peru, Brazil, ColombiaTo determine the frequency of adverse events and preventability of such events in selected ambulatory care sites2080 patients in outpatient clinics across Latin American countriesMultinational observational cohort study of a random selection of 2080 patients in outpatient clinics across Latin American countries.Ambulatory care
Rosales et al (abstract) [37]2015SpainTo outline the incidence and characteristics of moderate to severe ADR to biological agents in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patientsRheumatoid arthritis patientsObservational longitudinal study from 1999 to 2013 of RA patients followed up in outpatient clinicOutpatient
Schildmeijer et al [38]2018SwedenTo investigate the origin, incidence, types and preventability of adverse events that occur in patients receiving homecareHome care patientsRetrospective record review of healthcare records of 600 patientsHome care
Shehab et al [39]2008USATo estimate and compare the numbers and rates of emergency department visits due to systemic antibiotics related adverse effectsoutpatients visiting ambulatory care practicesRetrospective audit of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance
System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance project (2004–2006) and outpatient prescriptions from national sample surveys of ambulatory care practices
Ambulatory care practices
Theitler et al (Abstract) [40]2016Czech RepublicTo evaluate the rate of adverse event in a cohort of elderly patients with epilepsy115 epilepsy patients aged between 60 to 90Retrospective review of computerised databases and medical records of patients aged over 65 in epilepsy outpatient clinic from February 2012 to February 2016Outpatient
Tomlin et al [41]2012New ZealandTo examine the adverse effect in a general practice setting338,931 patients visiting 30 general practicesA review of electronic clinical records of 338,931 patients from 2002 to 2007 from patient management systemsGeneral practice settings
Tsang et al [42]2010UKTo identify the rate and types of adverse events in primary carePatients that used primary care practices in the UKDescriptive analyses of data extracted from clinical information management systemsPrimary care practices
Woods et al [43]2007USATo investigate the epidemiology of errors and adverse events in ambulatory carePatients who experienced adverse events in ambulatory care that led to hospitalizationA retrospective review of 14,700 hospital discharge records samples in Colorado and Utah Medical PracticesPrimary care
Wucherer et al [44]2017GermanyTo determine prevalence and types of drug related problems in community-dwelling residents whom are positive for dementiaParticipants screened positive for dementiaRetrospective analysis of medication reviews of 446 participants by pharmacists using a comprehensive baseline assessmentGeneral Practice