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Table 3 Informal patient payment factors related to external context of health system

From: New insight into the informal patients’ payments on the evidence of literature: a systematic review study

Demographic features of health service consumers• Individual features
• Household features
Age- sex- marital status- occupation- education- income level- residency- religious- race- health status- health insurance coverage- number of family members- socio economic situation of the family-
Patient’s personality features• patient perception & attitude
• Patient beliefs
• Patient feelings
• Patient willingness
• patient relationships
Informal payment necessity- value of health issues in return for any payment- satisfaction- fear- value and respect for the doctor- more welfare- choosing the right doctor- Supporting the doctor- patient physician relationship- patient- staff relationships- relationship with other patient and their suggestion-
Social & cultural backgrounds of the community• Low Community participation (Civil Society)
• Low Public/ patient awareness
• Value culture (normative)
Corruption culture
• Lost trust
Lack of media participation & social campaign- lack of public participation- lack of social planner’s participation-
low knowledge & public awareness- low patient awareness about health care services - low awareness of patient rights-
gratitude & tradition- compulsory social behavior- social attitudes and beliefs-culture of corruption in country - corruption in health system- governance corruption-
lack of trust in political system and official strategies-lack of trust in government- lack of trust in insurance-