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Table 1 Study level characteristics of 22 included studies

From: The effectiveness of prescription drug monitoring programs at reducing opioid-related harms and consequences: a systematic review

Study ID Included Jurisdiction with a PMP Study Population Study Design Outcome Groups Outcome Data Source, Years
Ali 2017 [24] All states except MO and DC general population Pooled Cross-sectional Logit and generalized linear models illicit opioid usea, opioid dependencea National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2004–2014
Birk 2017 [43] b All states that established PMPs between 1998 and 2012 general population, opioid-related deaths Controlled interrupted time series opioid-related care outcomes, opioid-related adverse events Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), 1998–2012; National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), 1999–2012
Branham 2018 [27] b AL, AZ, CO, CT, IN, IA, LA, ME, MN, MS, NV, NM, NC, ND, OH, SC, TN, UT, VT, VA, WV, WY people who use drugs admitted to treatment Controlled interrupted time series opioid-related care outcomesa TEDS, 1992–2012
Dave 2017 [44] b AK, AZ, AR, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, KS, LA, ME, MD, MN, MS, MT, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NC, ND, OH, OR, SC, SD, TN, WA, WI, WY, VT, VA general population Controlled interrupted time series opioid-related care outcomes TEDS, 2003–2014
Delcher 2015 [50]c FL drug-related deaths Controlled interrupted time series opioid-related adverse eventsa Florida Medical Examiners Commission, 2003–2012
Kim 2013 [51] AL, AZ, CA, CO, CT, IL, IN, LA, ME, MI, MS, NM, NC, ND, OH, OK, SC, TN, VA, WV, NY, HI, ID, OA, RI, TX, MA, NV, UT, WY, KY general population Interrupted time series opioid-related adverse events CDC Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER); 1999–2008
Kinsell 2015 [40] c NY, FL general population Controlled before and after/ Difference-in-difference approach opioid-related adverse eventsa, opioid-related care outcomesa CDC WONDER & Florida Medical Examiner Drug Related Death Data & Florida Agency for Health Care Administration & New York State Inpatient Databases (SID)/ State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD), 2009–2012
Li 2014 [52] MI, VA, NY, ME, MS, NC, CA, MA, TX, AZ, SC, TN, IL, RI, CO, CT, OH, AL, LA, OK, HI, ID, NM, KY, IN, UT, PA, WV, WY, ND, NV general population Controlled interrupted time series opioid-related adverse events NVSS, 1999–2008
Mallatt 2017 [55] c NSDUH:
49 states (excluding MO)
ARCOS:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, West VA, WY
NIBRS:
26 states
general population Repeated cross-sectional (NSDUH); interrupted time series (NIBRS & ARCOS) opioid-related legal and criminal outcomesa National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), 2004–2014
Maughan 2015 [25] c Detroit, Phoenix, San Francisco, Denver, Chicago, Boston, Miami, Minneapolis, New York City general population Generalized Estimate Equations with repeated measures opioid-related care outcomes eDrug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), 2004–2011
McLaughlin 2016 [28] AL, AZ, CA, CO, CT, IL, IN, IA, LA, ME, MI, MN, MS, NE, NM, NC, ND, OH, OK, SC, TN, VT, VA, WV, AK, NY, HI, ID, PA, RI, TX, MA, NJ, DE, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY, KS, SD, WI, FL, KY, MT general population Repeated cross sectional illicit opioid usea NSDUH, 2004–2012
Meara 2016 [48] AL, AZ, CA, CO, CT, IL, IN, IA, LA, ME, MI, MN, MS, NE, NM, NC, ND, OH, OK, SC, TN, VT, VA, WV, AK, NY, HI, ID, PA, RI, TX, MA, NJ, DE, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY, WY, SD, WI, FL, KY, MT insured population Cohort; before and after opioid-related adverse events Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR), Outpatient, Carrier, and Medicare Beneficiary Summary files, 2006–2012
Meinhofer 2017 [53] AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, WY, LA, ME, MD, MN, MS, MT, NE, NJ, NM, NC, ND, OH, OR, SC, SD, TN, VT, VA, WA, WI WY general population Interrupted time series opioid-related adverse eventsa NVSS, 2000–2013
Nam 2017 [45] c AL, AZ, CO, CT, IA, LA, ME, MN, MS, NC, ND, NM, OH, SC, TN, VA, VT, WV, WY general population Interrupted time series opioid-related adverse eventsa CDC WONDER, 1999–2014
Patrick 2016 [47] b WA, OR, AZ, NM, CO, WY, MT, SD, NE, WY, MN, IA, AR, LA, MS, AL, GA, FL, SC, NC, TN, VA, WV, OH, MD, DE, NJ, CT, VT, ME, AK, ND, WI, KY general population Controlled interrupted time series opioid-related adverse events CDC WONDER, 1999–2013
Paulozzi 2011 [46] CA, HI, ID, IL, IN, KY, ME, MA, MI, NV, NM, NY, OK, PA, TX, UT, VA, WV, WY general population Controlled interrupted time series opioid-related adverse events CDC WONDER, 1999–2005
Pauly 2018 [49] 48 states (all but MO and PA), and DC insured population Interrupted time series opioid-related adverse events Truven Health Marketscan claims database, 2004–2014
Radakrishnan 2015 [39] b All that fall into 1992–2011 general population Interrupted time series/ Repeated cross section opioid-related care outcomesa, opioid-related adverse eventsa TEDS, 1992–2010; NVSS, 1999–2010
Reifler 2012 [42] c CT, MA, ME, NY, PA, RI, AZ, CA, CO, HI, ID, NV, UT, WY, IA, IL, IN, MI, ND, OH, AL, KY, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV, WA general population Controlled interrupted time series opioid-related adverse events, opioid-related care outcomesa Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance System (RADARS), 2003–2009
Reisman 2009 [19] CA, HI, IL, IN, MA, MI, NY, OK, TX, ID, KY, NV, RI, UT people who use drugs admitted to treatment Cross-sectional (with interrupted time series) opioid-related care outcomes TEDS, 2003
Simeone 2006 [41] 20 states general population Prospective cohort study opioid-related care outcomes TEDS, 1997 & 2003
Surratt 2014 [26] c FL general population Interrupted time series opioid-related legal and criminal outcomes RADARS, 2009–2012
  1. aindicated outcome is available for heroin
  2. b study only includes states with PMPs implemented during the study period
  3. c study only focuses on some PMP states or jurisdictions within a country by choice, due to analytic constrictions, or due to availability of data
  4. AL Alabama, AK Alaska, AZ Arizona, AR Arkansas, CA California, CO Colorado, CT Connecticut, DE Delaware, FL Florida, GA Georgia, HI Hawaii, ID Idaho, IL Illinois, IN Indiana, IA Iowa, KS Kansas, KY Kentucky, LA Louisiana, ME Maine, MD Maryland, MA Massachusetts, MI Michigan, MN Minnesota, MS Mississippi, MO Missouri, MT Montana, NE Nebraska, NV Nevada, NH New Hampshire, NJ New Jersey, NM New Mexico, NY New York, NC North Carolina, ND North Dakota, OH Ohio, OK Oklahoma, OR Oregon, PA Pennsylvania, RI Rhode Island, SC South Carolina, SD South Dakota, TN Tennessee, TX Texas, UT Utah, VT Vermont, VA Virginia, WA Washington, WV West Virginia, WI Wisconsin, WY Wyoming, DC District of Columbia