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Table 1 Test ordering by self-identified high vs low/average utilizers of diagnostic tests and attending physicians vs trainees

From: Self-reported test ordering practices among Canadian internal medicine physicians and trainees: a multicenter cross-sectional survey

 High Utilizers* of Tests (N = 19)**Low/Avg* Utilizers of Tests (N = 111)**pAttending Physicians (N = 33)**Trainees (N = 99)**p
 Median Age, number (min-max)29 (25–48)28 (23–66)0.8842 (28–66)27 (23–37)< 0.001
 Female Sex, number (%)11 (58%)44 (40%)0.1512 (38%)43 (43%)0.55
 Self-identified as a high utilizer of tests, number (%)6 (18%)13 (13%)0.57
 Indicate that GIM providers order too many tests, number (%)14 (74%)81 (73%)0.9524 (73%)72 (73%)0.93
 Average number of lab tests per patient ordered in first 24 h of admission, number (SD)
 Average number of other tests ordered in first 24 h, number (SD)
 Average number of daily lab tests per patient in first week of admission, number (SD)
 Average estimated number of other tests per day of admission, number (SD)
 Feels confident when estimating number of lab and other tests , number (%)2 (11%)10 (9%)0.693 (9%)9 (9%)1.00
 Strongly considers cost when choosing lab tests, number (%)1 (5%)30 (27%)0.0414 (42%)17 (17%)< 0.001
 Strongly considers patient comfort when choosing lab tests, number (%)9 (47%)54 (49%)0.9223 (70%)41 (41%)0.01
 Strongly considers clinical utility when choosing lab tests, number (%)16 (84%)104 (95%)0.3133 (100%)89 (92%)0.20
 Proportion of work day spent deciding what tests to order, %32%27%0.2319%31%< 0.001
  1. *High Utilizers of tests correspond to a 4 or 5 on 5-point Likert Scale when asked to rate their diagnostic test ordering intensity relative to their peers. Low/Average Utilizers correspond to a 1–3 on the same scale
  2. **Percentages are based on question specific response rates rather than overall survey response rates
  3. Response corresponds to 4 or 5 on a 5-point Likert Scale
  4. Structured definition for “other investigations” was provided including radiographic imaging, ECGs, etc.
  5. SD = Standard Deviation