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Table 5 Univariate logistic regression analysis showing relationship between previously known predictors of recovery, and recovery (GPE and NDI) at 3-months post injury

From: Evidence-based care in high- and low-risk groups following whiplash injury: a multi-centre inception cohort study

  GPE NDI
  OR 95% CI Nagelkerke R2 P-value OR 95% CI Nagelkerke R2 P-value
CPR (low-risk vs high-risk) 13.067 3.746 45.579 .198 0.001* 82.5 9.516 715.277 .337 0.000*
Expectations of recovery .768 .669 .881 .147 < 0.0001* .668 .569 .785 .272 0.000*
Baseline pain intensity .641 .520 .789 .190 < 0.0001* .630 .510 .778 .201 0.000*
IES .975 .961 .990 .106 0.001* .967 .952 .983 .174 0.000*
EQ5D3L pre 15.843 .748 335.672 .034 0.076 10.780 .532 218.251 .026 0.121
EQ5D3L post 9.450 3.196 27.938 .168 < 0.0001* 22.026 6.451 75.202 .268 0.000*
EQ5D3L VAS 1.015 .983 1.048 .008 0.376 1.018 .985 1.052 .011 0.283
SF-12 physical 1.076 1.034 1.119 .132 < 0.0001* 1.103 1.055 1.152 .207 0.000*
SF-12 mental 1.078 1.043 1.114 .212 < 0.0001* 1.079 1.043 1.116 .213 0.000*
DASS total score .957 .934 .980 .137 < 0.0001* .943 .918 .969 .210 0.000*
DASS depression sub scale .894 .834 .958 .107 0.002* .844 .776 .917 .195 0.000*
PCS .957 .930 .984 .097 0.002* .934 .905 .964 .197 0.000*
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, CPR Clinical prediction rule, DASS Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, EQ5D3L Euro Quality of Life – 5 dimensions - 3 levels, IES-R Impact of Events Scale – revised, OR Odds ratio, PCS Pain catastrophising scale, SF-12 Short Form Health Survey 12, VAS Visual analogue scale. * statistically significant at p < 0.05